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4th Special Exhibition Hall ( Cultural & Creative Exhibition Hall)

4th Special Exhibition Hall-Striving Toward Our Beautiful Homeland

Source:客家文化發展中心
Publication Date:2023/07/23
Last updated:2023/07/31
4th Special Exhibition Hall-Striving Toward Our Beautiful Homeland 主圖
第四特展室 「拼.靚

Introduction:
Stinginess, stir-frys, floral cloths, and tung blossoms — these images form the stereotypes of Hakka people in Taiwan today. But is that the whole picture? The Hakka people in Taiwan have interacted continuously with other ethnic groups across this land, constantly adapting and changing in pursuit of a better life. The Hakka people thus have a multifaceted and vibrant identity within the context of Taiwanese history.

Bringing together precious collections from Taiwan’s public and private museums, local cultural centers, and private collectors, this exhibition depicts the multifaceted aspects of Hakka people in Taiwan through six different perspectives. Each of the exhibition’s six sections is named with a word from the Hakka language: Migration (saiˋ) showcases history; Beauty (jiangˊ) showcases daily life; Reverence (gin) showcases beliefs; Striving (biang) showcases protective strength; Innovation (bien) showcases innovation; and Seeking (qimˇ) showcases art.

The exhibition’s main theme of Striving Toward Our Beautiful Homeland (biang jiangˊ) holds two meanings. Firstly, it expresses the Hakka people’s tenacious and hardworking ethos and lifestyle, displaying the strength and beauty of Hakka cultural traditions and innovations. Secondly, the exhibition brings together important public and private collections, creating a rich display of Taiwan’s Hakka cultural artifacts, each outshining the next, as if striving to outdo each other in their splendor.

Section One: Migration - The Ceaseless Motion of Ethnic Groups
After the Hakka people immigrated to Taiwan, they experienced many twists and turns, with some settling down and some moving onward again. We begin with the story of the Hakka people who migrated to this new land and cooperated with a variety of local ethnic groups. We recount the process of their pioneering cultivation and settlement, as well as their further travels into various parts of Taiwan.

-A.

1-01 1-A The Veritable Records of Emperor Yongzheng of the Great Qing Dynasty, from August of the first year of his reign (print copy) Courtesy of the National Palace Museum Paper The 18th century (during the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Since antiquity Taiwan did not belong to China

In the eyes of Qing Dynasty officials, Taiwan was not considered part of China until it was incorporated into Chinese territory by Emperor Kangxi in 1684. In the first year of the Yongzheng reign (1723), imperial records documented the rewards given to officials following the Zhu Yigui rebellion. After the chaos of the uprising, the imperial authorities shared a similar attitude towards Taiwan. However, when considered from the perspective of archaeology and human civilization as a whole, the relationship between Taiwan with its surrounding seas, as well as with the rest of the world, is actually very close.

1-02 1-A Painting of tribute bearers by Xie Sui, Qing Dynasty (volume II) (print copy) Courtesy of the National Palace Museum Paper on  damask The 18th century (during the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Since antiquity Taiwan had no connection to China

Ancient China used tribute portraits to depict envoys from neighboring countries. During the Qing Dynasty, Xie Sui’s portrait of tribute bearers from Taiwan focused on various indigenous communities. This portrait was completed shortly after the chaos of the Lin Shuangwen rebellion and expressed the attitude, “historically Taiwan had no connection to China and was only incorporated into the territory during the Qing Dynasty”, written prominently at the beginning of the portrait. The portrait presents an image of the ‘other’ or ‘foreigners’. However at this time, Han Chinese settlers were already flowing into Taiwan like a tide.

1-03

1-A

Copy of Emperor Kangxi’s map of Taiwan, from Zhuqian Settlement to Luzai Port (print copy) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Pigment on silk Circa 1692 - 1704 -

1-04

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Emperor Qianlong’s map of Taiwan, from Zhuqian Settlement to Luzai port (replica) Courtesy of the National Palace Museum Paper The 18th century (during the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty) The increasing population of Han Chinese

On the Kangxi map of Taiwan, there are numerous ‘she’ representing indigenous settlements, while on the map created during the Qianlong reign, there is a noticeable increase in the number of ‘zhuang’ representing Han Chinese villages. This indicates that an increasing number of Han Chinese were settling in Taiwan.

1-05

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“Bitter Passage to Taiwan” Collection of the Hsinchu County Archives Paper 1938 Is journeying to Taiwan a good idea?

‘Bitter Passage to Taiwan’ is a lament from the Hakka region, expressing the hardships of the immigration process. The song begins with the lyrics, “I advise you not to come to Taiwan, for Taiwan is like the gates of hell. Thousands of people come, but none return. It is difficult to know life from death”. It then laments the endless suffering from departure, to the journey at sea, arriving and seeking work, and the hardships of daily life. It ends with the warning, “to those who know someone still wishing to come, beat them to death and throw them outside.”

1-06

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Affidavit of consent for passage to Taiwan Collection of Luo Lie Shi Paper During the Jiaqing reign, Qing Dynasty How to journey to Taiwan?

During the early years of the Qing Dynasty, constrained by population saturation and insufficient arable land, the Hakka community began seeking development opportunities in Taiwan. Many individuals who wished to journey to Taiwan would immigrate through blood ties or connections with fellow villagers. This document refers to the nine family members of Peng Rui Lan, who entrusted their relative Luo Ya Liang with the document for their immigration to Taiwan. The total cost of the voyage was 31 silver yuan, excluding expenses for food on board and fees for the connecting small boat on arrival. This document shows the process of Hakka immigration to Taiwan in the early 19th century through a network of relatives.

1-07

1-A

Lu Zhou’s memorial to the throne concerning management of Taiwan, Collected Works of Lu Zhou (volume II) Courtesy of the National Taiwan University Library Paper 1723 ‘Living in a different province’, Hakka people are treated as outsiders

The ‘Collected Works of Lu Zhou’ by Lan Ding Yuan is a record of the cause and process of the Zhu Yigui rebellion, as well as suggestions for governing Taiwan. The book provides an overview of the various immigrant groups in Taiwan, stating that “the people of Taiwan have no native origins, they are all individuals who have escaped and fled from the mainland, gathering partly from Fujian and partly from Guangdong. The Guangdong men have no wives and families; they work as tenant farmers and laborers known as ‘kezi’. They live in villages with populations ranging from the hundreds to the thousands, referred to as ‘kezhuang’”. The Hakka people mainly come from Guangdong and are considered ‘outsiders’ by the Fujian people, who see them as ‘waishengren’ (person whose ancestral home is not in Taiwan).

Additionally it briefly outlines the process of Hakka immigrants settling in Taiwan during the early Qing Dynasty: “ Guangdong Hakka people migrated to Taiwan to work as tenant farmers, known as ‘kezi’. The settlements they established had populations in the hundred thousands and consisted of mostly unmarried individuals. Known for their strength and resilience, their main focus was on cultivating land for survival and did not deviate from their goal. Although there were border restrictions in previous years, the travel ban was slightly relaxed towards the end of each year. They would sell their harvest and return to Guangdong to support their families, and return to Taiwan in the beginning of spring, making it a yearly cycle.”

-B.

1-08

1-B

Printing plate for a lease license (receipt) for rent collection in Anli Settlement Collection of the National Taiwan Museum Wood Qing Dynasty

Fantoujia - indigenous proprietors

Under the Qing Dynasty’s governance policies for ethnic groups, Taiwan’s Pingpu indigenous people (or “plains indigenous people”) became landowners. In mid-18th century Taiwan, the Anli Settlement was the largest and most influential community among the Pingpu Pazeh tribe. When Hakka people arrived in central Taiwan, they rented land from the Anli Settlement for cultivation. Indigenous hunters of the Formosan sika deer thus gained a new identity as landlords of Han Chinese farmland and were called ‘fantoujia’.

The ‘cuncha’ (verification) The ‘zhizhao’ (lease) section is kept by section of the document is the tenant, requiring the stamp of the kept by the landlord. landlord’s seal for validity.

The document is inscribed with a reference number, then folded and torn across the middle of the number. If any doubts arise, the two halves can be brought together to verify its authenticity.

1-09

1-B

Official seal for the Anli Rahodopuru
Settlement
Collection of the National Taiwan Museum Wood Qing Dynasty Land cultivation is not easy... who can provide protection?

In the 55th year of the Qianlong reign (1790), the Qing government recruited the Pingpu indigenous community to cultivate and establish settlements between the Han Chinese and mountain indigenous people. This was done to prevent Han Chinese from entering the mountainous areas and to avoid conflict between the two groups. This seal is inscribed with ‘Anli Rahodopuru Settlement Appointee Pan’, and was commonly used for document headers. From this seal, we can see the alliance between the Qing government and the Anli community.

1-10

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Seal of the Puzaili Settlement chief Collection of the National Taiwan Museum Wood Qing Dynasty The way of life for the Pingpu people has changed

After 1790, the Qing government formed an alliance with the Pingpu indigenous community, becoming the protective force in Taiwan. The Puzaili Settlement chief was appointed by the Qing government and issued with an official seal. The way of life for the Pingpu people gradually changed from being farmers and hunters to becoming government officials.

1-11

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In 1804, various decrees were transcribed in Jiuqionglin (a village rent-managed under Anli Settlement) (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1804 How was Jiuqionglin in Hsinchu cultivated?

According to this official record, starting from the first year of the Jiaqing reign (1796), authorities assigned the collection of rent in Jiuqionglin (present-day Qionglin Township, Hsinchu County) to the Anli Rahodopuru Settlement in Taichung. The Rahodopuru Settlement then entrusted Hakka settler Jiang Sheng Zhi to serve as manager, assisting in the rent collection of Jiuqionglin.

1-12

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Map of Ailiao in Changhua County (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper Mid 18th century Cooperation vs conflict!

This ‘Map of Ailiao in Changhua County’, was drawn in the 22nd year of the Qianlong reign (1757) when the government established checkpoints along the mountains in Changhua County. The map depicts the distribution of different ethnic groups and the relationships of cooperation and conflict at the time. The Changhua County area (covering parts of present-day southwestern Taichung City, Changhua County, western Nantou County, and northern Yunlin County), is shown in the central lower portion, with two mountain ranges above, dividing the areas of Daan River, Dajia River, Dadu and Zhuoshui River into three sections. In the middle are Han Chinese villages and many established checkpoints. Above are numerous Pingpu settlements to prevent conflicts between the indigenous groups from the mountain area and the Han Chinese.

1-13

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Map of agricultural development by the “Six Establishments” in the Taichung plains (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1733 (the 10th year of the Yongzheng reign, Qing Dynasty) The story of cooperation between the Hakka and Pazeh people from central Taiwan

In the early years of the Yongzheng reign, Pan Dun Zai, the chief of the Anli Settlement Pazeh tribe, wanted to dig irrigation channels to expand the production of paddy fields. He formed a partnership with Hakka native Zhang Da Jing, using the method of ‘land in exchange for water’. In the 10th year of the Yongzheng reign, Zhang Da Jing founded the ‘Six Establishments’ and jointly invested in building embankments from the Puzaili area to divert water from Dajia River, providing a branch-like irrigation system for the Fengyuan plateau.

After the introduction of water management techniques in the Anli Settlement, their way of life transitioned from hunting and shifting cultivation to settled agriculture. Zhang Da Jing upon obtaining land, recruited numerous Han Chinese tenant farmers to cultivate the land and collect rent. This made him a wealthy local Hakka figure in Taichung and laid the foundation for the historical distribution of Hakka people in central Taiwan that exists today.

1-14

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1792 water rights agreement between eight settlements, including Anli Settlement (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1792 How did the Han Chinese affect the Anli Settlement?

In the late 18th century, the Anli Settlement and the Han Chinese agreed on a three-to-seven ratio for the allocation of pond water rights. A total of eight settlements with Anli Settlement being one of them, realized the threat posed by the growing influence of Han Chinese, and entered into agreements to strengthen internal unity in order to resist them. The fact that the Pingpu indigenous group adopted written contractual agreements reflects the significant influence of the Han Chinese.

1-15

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Directive from Hsinchu County Hall ordering the submission of a military roster (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan HistorPaper Paper 1879 (the 5th year of the Guangxu reign, Qing Dynasty) Civilian armed forces are also relied upon by the government to maintain public order and security

This document is from the 5th year of the Guangxu reign during the Qing Dynasty (1879) when Li You Jie, the magistrate of Hsinchu County, ordered land developers Jin Wan Cheng to provide a roster of armed men in the village. The purpose was to understand the situation of the local armed forces and serve as a basis for patrols and mobilization. ‘Jin Wan Cheng’ refers to a land development company established in the mid-19th century by Hakka individuals, including Huang Nan Qiu. It was a privately owned company licensed by the government, mainly operating in the areas of present-day Toufen City and Sanwan Township in Miaoli County. This document shows that the government would also mobilize civilian forces to assist in maintaining public order.

1-16

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Seal of Wei Yao Zong, proprietor from Xiancaipeng Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan History Wood Estimated to be from the Qing Dynasty The ‘Fanyehzhu’ of Guanxi Township, Hsinchu County

‘Xiancaipeng’ is the name of the Hsinchu County Guanxi region during the Qing Dynasty. It was originally the traditional territory of the Atayal indigenous people. Since the 18th century, Hakka, Hokkien and the local Zhuqian Settlement worked together cooperatively to cultivate the area. Wei Yao Zong was the descendant of Wei Ah Gui, the leading force of the Zhuqian community towards the development of the Guanxi region. They were both indigenous leaders who leased land to the Han Chinese for cultivation.

1-17

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Painting of tribute bearers by Xie Sui, Qing Dynasty (volume II) (print copy) Courtesy of the National Palace Museum Paper on damask 18th century (during the Qianlong reign, Dynasty) Who did the Hakka people encounter after they came to this land?

The Hakka people encountered and interacted with various indigenous tribes of Taiwan. Xie Sui’s painting of tribute bearers depicts the ‘settled indigenous people of Tamsui District such as Zhuqian Settlement’. Zhuqian Settlement is located in the Hsinchu region, and along with Xingang Settlement in the Miaoli region, belonged to the Taokas indigenous group. The painting shows a representation of a man and a woman, with accompanying text describing their hairstyles and clothing. It also explains the interaction between indigenous people and Han Chinese through trade facilitated by intermediaries, and the payment of state taxes. Although this painting portrays an appearance of indigenous people imagined by court officials far away in Beijing, it nevertheless indicates the adoption of Han Chinese culture by the Taokas people of the Zhuqian area, resulting from their interactions with Hakka communities.

1-18

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1797 agreement to re-establish community regulations among nine settlements, including Anli Settlement (part I) (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1797 (the 2nd year of the Jiaqing reign, Qing Dynasty) Influenced by the Hakka people, the Pingpu indigenous group also began to ‘sign contracts’

Through close interactions with the Hakka people, the Pingpu indigenous community was influenced by Han Chinese conventions and adopted the concept of written contracts. This contract was jointly established by nine settlements including Anli Settlement, in the second year of the Jiaqing reign. It was drawn up to address conflicts over communal property, redefine the responsibilities of various public positions, as well as regulate the collection and use of public rent.

1-19

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Stamped document issued to the Puzaili Settlement liaison by the subprefecture office of indigenous affairs (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1838 (the 18th year of the Daoguang reign, Qing Dynasty) The testimony of the twelve seals

A member of the Adohan Settlement had previously pawned his land to a Han Chinese individual. Before the end of the loan period and while still in debt, he increased the value of the land and extended the loan period with the Han Chinese individual. This contract bears the seals of many other indigenous settlements as witnesses, demonstrating the close relationships within the Pingpu indigenous community. It also shows the transfer of land rights from the Pingpu people to the Hakka people.

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Portrait of mixed-race women from Wanjin Village in southern Formosa (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History Photograph 1872-1875 (the 11th year of the Tongzhi reign – the first year of the Guangxu reign, Qing Dynasty) Indigenous and Hakka intermarriage

This image is taken from ‘Photographs of Formosa’ where two women are seated side by side in the center of the frame. The woman on the left wears a traditional southern Hakka shirt, while the woman on the right wears a necklace. The caption below reads “half caste women, at Ban-kin chang, south formosa.” Referring to the mixed-race women in Wanjin Village (located in present-day Wanluan Township, Pingtung County), in southern Formosa.

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1772 property register for descendants of Zhang Da Jing, with assets inherited by drawing lots (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper 1772 (the 37th year of the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty) When two ethnic groups interact, people who can facilitate communication between them can rise to prominence, such as Zhang Da Jing, a Hakka immigrant

Zhang Da Jing (1690 – 1773) was a native of Dapu County, Chaozhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province. He arrived in Taiwan in the 50th year of the Kangxi reign (1711). In the 3rd year of the Yongzheng reign (1725), he served as the Anli Settlement’s first general intermediary for the Pingpu and Pazeh indigenous people. He married the daughter of the Pingpu tribe chief, and assisted the government in mediating between indigenous and Han Chinese communities. He also gained tremendous wealth through the development of the northern region of the Taichung basin, known as the ‘Six Establishments’.

This document is a record of the division of property among the descendants of Zhang Da Jing, showing the process of Hakka people branching out across Taiwan. Zhang Da Jing became an ‘ancestor of Taiwan migration’, with descendants numbering to nearly 10,000 people, charting the history of Hakka immigrant settlement and integration.

1-22

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1788 letter of certification (Pan Chu Ba) (reproduction)
Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum
Paper 1788 (the 53rd year of the Qianlong reign) The Pingpu indigenous people become members of the Hakka gentry

Pan Chu Ba is the descendant of Pan Dun Zai, the chief of the Anli Settlement Pazeh tribe. The Pan family was frequently involved in interactions with the Qing government, assisting them in suppressing uprisings. They obtained official positions becoming an important family and elites in local society. This certification document indicates that Pan Chu Ba, by means of donation, obtained the qualification to become a student of official schools, demonstrating the assimilation of the Pan family into the Hakka Han Chinese system and culture.

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Portrait of Liu Cheng Hao, the first chief commander of Jiuqionglin Village (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper Date unknown The pioneers of Hakka cultivation in the Jiuqionglin area

This pair of portraits is of Liu Cheng Hao and his wife from Jiuqionglin in Hsinchu County. The portraits are usually displayed in the family ancestral hall. Jiuqionglin is located in present-day Qionglin Township, Hsinchu County, where Hakka immigrants such as Jiang Sheng Zhi and Liu Cheng Hao came to cultivate the land. The Liu couple arrived in the Jiuqionglin area in the mid to late 19th century, and became the ancestors of the Liu family in Qionglin Township.

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Portrait of Lady Luo, wife of the 14th patriarch Liu Cheng Hao (reproduction) Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum Paper Date unknown The pioneers of Hakka cultivation in the Jiuqionglin area

This pair of portraits is of Liu Cheng Hao and his wife from Jiuqionglin in Hsinchu County. The portraits are usually displayed in the family ancestral hall. Jiuqionglin is located in present-day Qionglin Township, Hsinchu County, where Hakka immigrants such as Jiang Sheng Zhi and Liu Cheng Hao came to cultivate the land. The Liu couple arrived in the Jiuqionglin area in the mid to late 19th century, and became the ancestors of the Liu family in Qionglin Township.

※搭配模型

 

Liu family ancestral hall in Xinpu Township      

The Liu family ancestral shrine, also known as the ‘Liu Family Temple’ in Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County, was built during the Qing Dynasty’s Tongzhi reign by local members of the Liu clan.

Establishing places of worship was a typical feature of early immigrant society in Taiwan, where early Hakka settlers formed a community of worship for the purpose of survival and defense, based on their shared origins and ancestral connections, uniting in the name of their ancestral clan.

Architectural features:

The Liu family ancestral shrine in Xinpu Township is now a historical site in Hsinchu County. It is a ridged building with a single entrance, three horizontal beams and one courtyard enclosure, belonging to the type of Hakka architecture known as ‘horizontal house’, also commonly referred to as ‘protective dragons’. The roof of the horizontal house features a combination of both raised ridges and ‘horseback’ gables, which was rarely seen in Taiwan. The shrine’s central ancestral hall is the core of the entire building and is the main space for worship. The enclosed courtyard is surrounded by low walls, forming a square-shaped area serving as a gathering place for the family. The building’s side wings provide living spaces for the descendants’ daily activities.

-C.

1-25

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Amis Language Manuscript by Chen Zhen Zong, the first democratically elected county magistrate (reproduction)

​Taitung County Cultural Affairs Department / courtesy of Zhuo Shi Hong

Paper

​​1917 (the 6th year of the Taishō era)

Chen Zhen Zong (1892 – 1951), and his paternal ancestors who migrated to Taiwan during the Qing Dynasty.

Chen Zhen Zong’s father Chen Kai Xun, served in the military and was stationed in the Houshan region during the Qing Dynasty. His mother, maiden name Shi, was from the Puyuma indigenous people. Chen Zhen Zong was knowledgeable and talented, as well as proficient in various indigenous languages. During the Japanese occupation period, in the 6th year of the Taishō era (1917), he worked for the Taitung sugar company and completed the ‘Amis Language Manuscript’ in Japanese while residing at Luyeh immigrant village.

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Autobiography of Taitung County magistrate Wu Jin Yu (reproduction)

Taitung County Cultural Affairs Department / courtesy of Wu Ming Xun

Paper

Date unknown

Wu Jin Yu (1896 – 1989) was a native of Pingtung County. His paternal ancestors were Hakka who came from Meixian, Guangdong Province, and settled in the Liudui region of Pingtung County.

During the Qing Dynasty Tongzhi reign, Wu Jin Yu’s father Wu Tian Lai, along with his grandfather came to the Houshan region to cultivate the land. Wu Jin Yu served as the second county magistrate of Taitung County. This autobiography narrates Wu Jin Yu’s personal experiences of relocation, education, and other events in his life since childhood.

1-27

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“Preface to the Song Family Genealogy” by Song Zi Ao (reproduction)

Taitung County Cultural Affairs Department / courtesy of Song Ming Ying

Paper

Date unknown

Song Zi Ao (1905 – 1989) was born in Neipu Township, Pingtung County. He studied in Tainan and later moved to Chenggong Township, Taitung County with his father Song An Bang.

This document serves as the preface to the Song family genealogy, explaining the migration of ancestors from Meixian, Guangdong Province to Taiwan, and their later relocation to Taitung County.

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1-C

Complete map of Langjiao, Writings of Xiao Yun, volume IV

Courtesy of the National Taiwan Library

Paper

Circa 1840

In this map Baoli Village can be seen next to Chaicheng (present-day Checheng Township) and Langjiao (present-day Hengchung Township), and adjacent to an indigenous settlement. During the Qing Dynasty, some Hakka people from the Liudui region migrated to Baoli Village to cultivate the land. In the early days there were intense conflicts with indigenous people, which were gradually resolved through treaties and intermarriage. This period of history serves as the setting for the TV drama ‘Seqalu: Formosa 1867’.

 

Section Two: Beauty – The Art of Life beyond the Floral Cloth
The full richness and beauty of Hakka artistry reaches far beyond the common designs of floral-print cloths and tung tree blossoms. We begin with the magnificent wedding dress of the Xiao family from Jiadong Township in southern Taiwan, as a starting point to showcase the exquisite craftsmanship, refined style, and martial arts of a blossoming Hakka culture. Within these delicate artifacts, we can see people’s aspirations for blissful marriage, love for their descendants, and striving toward self-fulfillment.

-A.

2-01

2-A

(Xiao family, Jiadong Township) Red diagonal lapel shirt with gold embroidered ‘double happiness’ (囍) pattern            

of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Silk

1945

This garment is the bridal attire for the marriage of Li Song-Zhen from the Li family and Xiao Fu-Ying from the Xiao family, of Jiadong Township, Pingtung County. Traditional bridal attire, whether for Hokkien or Hakka weddings, follows the Ming Dynasty style known as the “phoenix crown and red robes.”. The bride wears a phoenix crown, a red robe adorned with a “cloud collar” over the shoulders, a skirt, white undershirt and underskirt, and red shoes. This bridal attire is elaborately designed and exquisite in its embroidery. When paired with the photographs taken after the wedding ceremony, it vividly showcases the fashion of that time and conveys the social status of the couple.

2-02

2-A

(Xiao family, Jiadong Township) Silver-gilded phoenix crown

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Silver, iron, plastic, cotton thread

1945

This garment is the bridal attire for the marriage of Li Song-Zhen from the Li family and Xiao Fu-Ying from the Xiao family, of Jiadong Township, Pingtung County. Traditional bridal attire, whether for Hokkien or Hakka weddings, follows the Ming Dynasty style known as the “phoenix crown and red robes.”. The bride wears a phoenix crown, a red robe adorned with a “cloud collar” over the shoulders, a skirt, white undershirt and underskirt, and red shoes. This bridal attire is elaborately designed and exquisite in its embroidery. When paired with the photographs taken after the wedding ceremony, it vividly showcases the fashion of that time and conveys the social status of the couple.

2-03

2-A

(Xiao family, Jiadong Township) Green satin undergarment with floral and bird pattern and gold embroidery

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Satin

1945

This garment is the bridal attire for the marriage of Li Song-Zhen from the Li family and Xiao Fu-Ying from the Xiao family, of Jiadong Township, Pingtung County. Traditional bridal attire, whether for Hokkien or Hakka weddings, follows the Ming Dynasty style known as the “phoenix crown and red robes.”. The bride wears a phoenix crown, a red robe adorned with a “cloud collar” over the shoulders, a skirt, white undershirt and underskirt, and red shoes. This bridal attire is elaborately designed and exquisite in its embroidery. When paired with the photographs taken after the wedding ceremony, it vividly showcases the fashion of that time and conveys the social status of the couple.

2-04

2-A

(Xiao family, Jiadong Township) Colorful silk and satin ‘cloud collar’ embroidered in auspicious pattern with willow leaves

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Satin, cotton

1945

This garment is the bridal attire for the marriage of Li Song-Zhen from the Li family and Xiao Fu-Ying from the Xiao family, of Jiadong Township, Pingtung County. Traditional bridal attire, whether for Hokkien or Hakka weddings, follows the Ming Dynasty style known as the “phoenix crown and red robes.”. The bride wears a phoenix crown, a red robe adorned with a “cloud collar” over the shoulders, a skirt, white undershirt and underskirt, and red shoes. This bridal attire is elaborately designed and exquisite in its embroidery. When paired with the photographs taken after the wedding ceremony, it vividly showcases the fashion of that time and conveys the social status of the couple.

2-05

2-A

Silk brocade skirt with peony pattern

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Silk brocade, satin, cotton

1945

This garment is the bridal attire for the marriage of Li Song-Zhen from the Li family and Xiao Fu-Ying from the Xiao family, of Jiadong Township, Pingtung County. Traditional bridal attire, whether for Hokkien or Hakka weddings, follows the Ming Dynasty style known as the “phoenix crown and red robes.”. The bride wears a phoenix crown, a red robe adorned with a “cloud collar” over the shoulders, a skirt, white undershirt and underskirt, and red shoes. This bridal attire is elaborately designed and exquisite in its embroidery. When paired with the photographs taken after the wedding ceremony, it vividly showcases the fashion of that time and conveys the social status of the couple.

2-06

2-A

Bedcover embroidered in gold with five lions playing with a ball

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Satin, cotton

1945

The bedcover is commonly included in the bride’s dowry. This bedcover is embroidered with gold thread, forming a design of five lions playing with a ball, symbolizing the auspicious meaning of fertility.

2-07

2-A

Stool for upper body support when giving birth

​​Collection of the Meinong Hakka Cultural Museum

Wood

1907-1917

In the past, women gave birth at home with the assistance of midwives. If the midwife found that the mother’s birth canal was not fully dilated, she would have her lie face down on this stool and push during contractions.

2-08

2-A

Black silk and satin child’s cap embroidered with colorful rooster pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty

This child’s hood for cold weather is from the Hsinchu area. The cockscomb flower and rooster design on the hood symbolizes the blessing of ‘achieving high office’.

2-09

2-A

Black cotton bowl-shaped child’s cap embroidered with colorful tiger pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, silver studs

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This child’s cap is from the Hakka community in the Liudui region. It is an important item in the traditional custom of ‘duisui’ (first birthday celebration). The hat not only keeps the child warm, but also features a tiger design, which is believed to ward off evil spirits and provide protection.

2-10

2-A

Black silk paneled circlet cap with gold studs

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Silk

Late Qing Dynasty

This child’s summer cap is from Tuniu Village, Toufen City, Miaoli County.

2-11

2-A

Child’s circlet cap with floral and bird patterns and gold embroidery

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

​​This child’s summer cap is from Neiwan Village, Sanwan Township, Miaoli County.

2-12

2-A

Beige silk and satin embroidered child’s bib with lotus petal design

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This bib is from Zhudong Township, Hsinchu County, used as a baby’s drool bib to help keep excess saliva from wetting its clothes.

2-13

2-A

Colorful embroidered silk and satin peach-shaped child’s bib

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This bib is from the Huang Qi Ying family in Nan Village, Miaoli County. Customs such as the ‘full month’ (when a newborn is one month old) and the first birthday celebrate the early milestones of life, when the child wears exquisitely embroidered bibs to receive blessings.

-B.

2-14

2-B

Blue cotton Hakka-style diagonal lapel shirt from Miaoli

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This Hakka style shirt featuring the characteristic blue base and black border, originates from Toufen City, Miaoli County, and is the daily attire of Hakka women.

2-15

2-B

Linen Hakka-style blue shirt from Liudui

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Linen

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

​​

This everyday long shirt for Hakka women originates from the Liudui region in southern Taiwan, featuring the characteristic blue base and black border with folded pocket sleeves. Usually after daily prayers, the ends of incense sticks are used as button fastenings. During festivals and celebrations, precious gold or silver buttons are used.

2-16

2-B

Long-sleeved shirt (print image)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Prehistory

Fabric

Date uknown

This shirt (tkpaan) comes from the Ami tribe of eastern Taiwan. It features a diagonal front opening, a stand-up collar and sleeves made from black cotton fabric with blue borders on the front opening and sleeves. Black horizontal fabric buttons are sewn at the upper and lower ends of the opening. The material and style are influenced by Han Chinese fashion, while the folded cuffs resemble the Hakka style, allowing us to imagine the historical interaction between ethnic groups.

2-17

2-B

White cotton undergarment embroidered with colorful double lion and phoenix pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton

Late Qing Dynasty

This fan-shaped undergarment is from the Liudui Hakka region of the Kaohsiung and Pingtung area of Taiwan. Along the bottom is colorful embroidery depicting auspicious motifs such as double lions, decorative balls, the phoenix and peony. The border is adorned with geometric patterns, flowers and the Chinese character for longevity, indicating the cultural exchange between the Hakka people and neighboring indigenous communities.

2-18

2-B

White cotton undergarment embroidered with double fish and phoenix pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton

Qing Dynasty

This fan-shaped undergarment is from the Liudui Hakka region of the Kaohsiung and Pingtung area of Taiwan. The bottom pocket is embroidered with blue cotton thread using a braiding technique, depicting auspicious motifs such as fish playing in lotus flowers, the phoenix and peony. The border is decorated with geometric patterns, and a continuous pattern of flowers, indicating the cultural exchange between the Hakka people and neighboring indigenous communities.

2-19

2-B

Green silk and satin Hakka-style undergarment with fine embroidery from Miaoli

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This diamond-shaped undergarment originates from the Miaoli area. The elaborate embroidery with a centerpiece arranged in triangular panels, as well as the color combination of aqua silk fabric with navy blue silk thread, showcases distinct characteristics from the Hakka region in Miaoli County.

2-20

2-B

Cream satin Hakka-style undergarment with colorful embroidery from Dongshi

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin

Qing Dynasty

This undergarment is from the Dongshi Hakka Village in Taichung. A unique feature is the protective abdominal panel.

2-21

2-B

Blue silk and satin embroidered waist belt

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty

This waistband is from the Liudui Hakka region in the Kaohsiung and Pingtung area, worn around the waist to secure the wearer’s trousers from slipping. The waistband’s beautiful embroidery is covered by a shirt, conveying the reserved nature of the Hakka people.

2-22

2-B

Blue silk and satin embroidered waist belt

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty

This waistband is from the Liudui Hakka region in the Kaohsiung and Pingtung area, worn around the waist to secure the wearer’s trousers from slipping. The waistband’s beautiful embroidery is covered by a shirt, conveying the reserved nature of the Hakka people.

2-23

2-B

White satin headband with gold embroidery

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin, cotton fabric

Late Qing Dynasty

This headband originates from Miaoli County, worn across the forehead during the winter season for warmth. The elderly often use black headbands, while young women from affluent families wear decorative bands with gold embellishments.

2-24

2-B

White satin headband with gold embroidery

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin, cotton fabric

Late Qing Dynasty

This headband originates from Miaoli County, worn across the forehead during the winter season for warmth. The elderly often use black headbands, while young women from affluent families wear decorative bands with gold embellishments.

2-25

2-B

White satin eyeglasses pouch embroidered with colorful floral and bird pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin

Japanese occupation era

This eyeglasses pouch originates from the Miaoli Hakka village. Pouches for storing a fan and eyeglasses are important accessories for scholars, symbolizing their identity and status.

2-26

2-B

White satin eyeglasses pouch embroidered with colorful floral and bird pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Satin

Japanese occupation era

This eyeglasses pouch originates from the Miaoli Hakka village. Pouches for storing a fan and eyeglasses are important accessories for scholars, symbolizing their identity and status.

2-27

2-B

Crystal eyeglasses

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Copper, glass

Qing Dynasty

This pair of reading glasses for the elderly originates from the Guangdong region of China. It is used together with a glasses case.

2-28

2-B

Foldable coin purse embroidered with gold thread and colorful floral and bird patterns

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This coin purse originates from Nanzhuang Township,  Miaoli County, featuring a folding design of three sections, commonly used in northern Hakka settlements. The surface is embroidered with auspicious floral and bird patterns.

 

2-29

2-B

Foldable coin purse embroidered with gold thread and colorful floral and bird patterns

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This coin purse originates from Sanwan Township, Miaoli County, featuring a folding design of three sections, commonly used in northern Hakka settlements. The surface is embroidered with auspicious floral and bird patterns.

2-30

2-B

Hairpin with floral design

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Wire, paper, thread

Japanese occupation era

This hairpin originates from Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County, and is worn by Hakka brides. It is decorated with entwined flowers, showcasing the unique Hakka style.

2-31

2-B

Two-colored silk and satin doorway curtain embroidered with colorful auspicious lion pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This doorway curtain is from Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County, used as a decorative curtain hung in the doorway of a newlywed couple’s room. It features a pair of embroidered phoenixes and lions symbolizing good fortune.

2-32

2-B

Two-colored silk and satin doorway curtain embroidered with colorful phoenix and peony pattern

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This doorway curtain is from Zhudong Township, Hsinchu County, used as a decorative curtain hung in the doorway of a newlywed couple’s room. It features a pair of embroidered phoenixes and lions symbolizing good fortune.

-C.

2-33

2-C

Summer court hat of imperial scholar Jiang

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Dajia rush grass weaving, crystal crown adornment

1883

This item is a summer court official hat worn by Qing Dynasty scholars who passed the imperial examinations. During this time, officials had different hat styles for winter and summer. The summer hat has a conical design, while the winter hat is lined with fur. The top of the hat is adorned with red tassels and decorative beads that correspond to the wearer’s rank.

 

2-34

2-C

Examination papers of imperial scholar Jiang (printing block), first of five

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Wood carving

​​Qing Dynasty (Tongzhi Gengwu examination)

​​Jiang Shang-Rong (also known by his literary name Jiang Chang-Rong) was a successful candidate in the imperial examination during the late Qing Dynasty. He traveled from Taiwan to the capital on mainland China and took the examination five times before achieving success. He had his provincial examination papers (that were corrected by examiners) engraved into five printing blocks containing the following information:

1. Jiang Chang-Rong’s name, pen name, date of birth, ancestral hometown and the school that he attended.

2. Names of five generations of ancestors and the surnames of their spouses.

3. Names of his teachers: apart from his mentor, the names of the main teachers and instructors who provided guidance throughout his education (and the name of the examiner who particularly appreciated his writing and used his work).

4. His ranking in the examination (Jian Chang-Rong was ranked 101st) and comments from the chief examiner.

5. Examination questions and his answers.

From this provincial examination paper, it is evident that Jiang Chang-Rong respected his teachers and valued filial piety. He believed that his success was due to the virtue of his ancestors and the guidance of his teachers. Thus the names of his ancestors going back five generations, teachers, and examiners were all engraved. Additionally there are two comments from the examiners describing Jian Chang-Rong’s writing as ‘bold and elegant’ and his demeanor as ‘dignified and composed’.

 

2-35

2-C

Examination papers of imperial scholar Jiang (printing block), fifth of five

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Wood carving

Qing Dynasty (Tongzhi Gengwu examination)

 

2-36

2-C

Rubbings of examination papers of imperial scholar Jiang Shang Rong

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Paper

Qing Dynasty (Tongzhi Gengwu examination)

 

2-37

2-C

‘Hualing’ Imperial Merit Award

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood

1863

This item is the ‘Hualing’ Imperial Merit Award of Chang Chao-Gang from Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County. Chen Chao-Gang was a virtuous Hakka leader who helped lead local forces quelling the Tai Chao Chuen rebellion. In 1863 (the second year of the Tongzhi reign), he was bestowed with this award, illustrating the practice of using titles and honors to rally local gentry to participate in the governance of public affairs.

 

2-38

2-C

Military examination award plaque

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood

1875 (the first year of the Guangxu reign, Qing Dynasty)

This item is the military examination award plaque from Tongluo Township, Miaoli County, presented in recognition of Lai Ting-Zhang’s success in the imperial examination. Lai Ting-Zhang was a prominent figure in Tongluo Township during the late Qing Dynasty and the Japanese occupation period. At the age of 17, he journeyed across the sea to take the imperial examination and achieved success in the military examination. He transformed the Lai family’s private school into a ‘luantang’, a place for both worship and education, called ‘Minxin Hall’. This plaque illustrates the achievements and local influence from members of the gentry.

 

Section Three: Reverence - Devotion Brings Unity and Peace of Mind
In the midst of turbulence and uncertainty, people devoutly worship ancestors and deities, seeking peace of mind. It is also through these rituals that unity is fostered in communities. We begin with interpreting a tiao dan — a temple register from early 20th century northern Taiwan — as a starting point to examine Hakka village customs, including deference to the heavens, worshiping deities, and revering ancestors. Our examination of these customs reveal an unexpected discovery — it turns out that activities like starting your own band and crowdfunding are nothing new!

-A.

3-01

3-A

Incense burner

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Ceramic

Japanese occupation era

This incense burner is the work of Lin Rong Fei. The lid is decorated with a lion, symbolizing strength and auspiciousness. Additionally, the incense smoke can elegantly rise out from the lion’s mouth, showcasing the creativity of the design.

3-02

3-A

​​‘Jian box’, vessel for offerings
(此件刪除)

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood

Qing Dynasty

​​This ‘jian box’ is a ceremonial item placed in front of the incense burner on the altar. Three cups of water, wine or tea are placed on top of the box. This particular box comes from the Hakka region in Hsinchu County and features the appearance of ancient ceremonial objects in its intricate openwork carvings in the ‘bogu pattern’.

3-02

3-A

​​‘Jian box’, vessel for offerings

Collection of Huang Zhuo Quan

 -

 -

The ‘jian box’ is a pedestal for the sacred cups used for worship, placed in front of the incense burner on the ancestral altar. A stick of incense and three cups of strong tea is an essential offering for morning worship, known as ‘burning incense and serving tea’ in the Hakka language.

This ‘jian box’ is a cultural artifact of the Huang Nan Qiu family. It is made of wood and shaped like a chair, carved with auspicious symbols on the backrest and seat, such as bats, incense burners, precious vessels, as well as pine and plum motifs.

3-03

3-A

Incense container

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood

Late Qing Dynasty

​​This incense container is a ceremonial vessel used for holding incense sticks. This particular item is from the Hakka region in Miaoli County and showcases exquisite craftsmanship. The left side is carved with plum blossoms and magpies, while on the right are carvings of pine trees, deer and cranes. These motifs symbolize happiness and longevity, bringing joy and blessings.

3-04

3-A

Table skirt

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

​​Late Qing Dynasty – Japanese occupation era

This embroidered table skirt is from the Xinpu area of Hsinchu County. It is used as a decorative item hung in front of the main altar in the ceremonial hall.

3-05

3-A

Table skirt

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Cotton, satin

Japanese occupation era

This embroidered table skirt is from the Hukou area of Hsinchu County. It is used as a decorative item hung in front of the main altar in the ceremonial hall.

3-06

3-A

Embroidered lantern with entwined flowers

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood, fabric

Qing Dynasty

This lantern is from the Hakka village in Hsinchu County. It showcases the skill of Hakka women through its exquisite embroidery and craftsmanship of the entwined flowers design. Embroidered lanterns are often made by the bride herself to decorate her new home, symbolizing the wish for the addition of children.

3-07

3-A

Table offering of entwined flowers

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Wood, fabric

1870- 1890

This table offering of entwined flowers is made from silk thread, and are often displayed on the ceremonial hall altars of Hakka households. They serve as decorative items similar to fresh flowers. This particular piece is from Guanxi Township in Hsinchu County. It features silk threads interwoven with long strips of tin foil embellishments, commonly known as ‘with gold’ or ‘with silver’, adding interest to the overall design.

3-08

3-A

Ceremonial cabinet

 

Collection of the Hakka Affairs Commission, Kaohsiung City Government

Wood

1900

This artifact is from a set of two pieces for different uses. They were used for worship and weddings for gifting purposes, to hold and transport gifts and sacrificial offerings. This ceremonial cabinet is beautifully carved and decorated with bright lacquer paint, it is likely used in joyous occasions such as weddings and other celebratory events.

3-09

3-A

‘Kanhua’ bowl covers –‘Yuan’ (essence), ‘Heng’ (untroubled), ‘Li’ (prosperity), ‘Zhen’ (integrity), ‘Qian’ (heavens)

Collection of the New Taipei City Hakka Museum

Embroidery

Mid Qing Dynasty

‘Kanhua’ emerged in the later period of the Qing Dynasty. The name refers to the circular embroidered bowl covers offered by the Hakka people in the Hsinchu and Miaoli regions during festive occasions, such as New Year celebrations and weddings. They served as offerings to deities or ancestors, and were embroidered with auspicious patterns consisting of four main designs; flowers, animals, Chinese characters and architecture. The ‘kanhua’ typically comes in a set of five covers, which are displayed in five ‘kanhua’ bowls. The bowls are usually porcelain or glass, with the ‘kanhua’ placed front side up, symbolizing good fortune and joy.

3-10

3-A

Porcelain bowls – ‘Yuan’ (essence), ‘Heng’ (untroubled), ‘Li’ (prosperity), ‘Zhen’ (integrity), ‘Qian’ (heavens)

Collection of the New Taipei City Hakka Museum

Porcelain

Mid Qing Dynasty

3-11

3-A

 ‘Kanhua’ bowl covers – mandarin duck, magpie, peacock, butterfly, phoenix and peony

Collection of the New Taipei City Hakka Museum

Embroidery

Japanese occupation era

​‘Kanhua’ emerged in the later period of the Qing Dynasty. The name refers to the circular embroidered bowl covers offered by the Hakka people in the Hsinchu and Miaoli regions during festive occasions, such as New Year celebrations and weddings. They served as offerings to deities or ancestors, and were embroidered with auspicious patterns consisting of four main designs; flowers, animals, Chinese characters and architecture. The ‘kanhua’ typically comes in a set of five covers, which are displayed in five ‘kanhua’ bowls. The bowls are usually porcelain or glass, with the ‘kanhua’ placed front side up, symbolizing good fortune and joy.

3-12

3-A

Glass bowls – mandarin duck, magpie, peacock, butterfly, phoenix and peony

Collection of the New Taipei City Hakka Museum

Glass

Japanese occupation era

3-13

3-A

‘Huan lao yuan’ (vow fulfillment ritual) message (reproduction)

Taitung County Cultural Affairs Department / courtesy of Huang Ping

Paper

Date unknown

The ‘huan lao yuan’ ritual is performed by children after the passing of their parents, who are concerned about any vows that their parents had made to deities, which had not been fulfilled during their lifetime.

3-14

3-A

Message for peace and harmony (reproduction)

Taitung County Cultural Affairs Department / courtesy of Huang Ping

Paper

Date unknown

This message is a new year blessing from the Hakka village, written for the ritual of ‘blessings at the beginning of the year and blessings returned at the end of the year’.

-B.

3-15

3-B-1

Kings of the Three Mountains – divination book from Xinbeishi Temple, Fengtian Village, Neipu Township, Pingtung County

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

 

Paper

​​1958 (the 47th year of the Republic of China)

 

​​This book is the divination verses and printing plates from Xinbeishi Temple in Neipu Township, Pingtung County. The temple serves as the religious center for the residents of Fengtian and Zhenfeng villages. Neipu Township has three temples that worship the ‘Kings of Three Mountains’, with Xinbeishi Temple originally devoted to the deity Sanwang, while nearby Laobeishi Temple was dedicated to the deity Erwang. These temples hold great importance among the local community’s beliefs. When residents visit the temples to pray, they draw divination strips to understand the will of the gods. Once the divination strips of a popular temple are used up, they can be reprinted using printing plates.

3-16

3-B-1

Kings of the Three Mountains – divination verses printing plate from Xinbeishi Temple, Fengtian Village, Neipu Township, Pintung County

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Material unknown

Early post-war period

3-17-a

3-B-2

Taiwan Hakka village Mazu faith – Beigang Chaotian Temple prayer flag (dated to 1822)

Collection of the Yunlin County Government / Beigang Chaotian Temple

Fabric, bamboo

1846 (the 26th year of the Daoguang reign, Qing Dynasty)

This prayer flag was registered as a historical artifact of Yunlin County in the 107th year of the Republic of China (2018). According to the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, it is one of the earliest known surviving prayer flags in Taiwan with rare characteristics and historical significance.

The prayer flag was originally used for worship by a devotee named Chen Ah Zhao from Heshui Village, located at the foot of Nanshi Mountain (present-day Yuanli Township in Miaoli County). The name ‘Chen Ah Zhao suggests a possible Hakka origin, indicating the longstanding history of people from Hakka settlements in the Miaoli region making the pilgrimage to Chaotian Temple in Beigang Township, Yunlin County, a journey of more than 100 kilometers, dating back to the Qing Dynasty.

The flag is triangular with a gourd-shaped flagpole top. Inscriptions are written in ink on the cloth of the flagpole, reflecting the standard form of prayer flags during the later period of the Qing Dynasty in Taiwan.

3-17-b

3-B-2

Taiwan Hakka village Mazu faith – Beigang Chaotian Temple prayer flag (dated to 1890)

Collection of the Yunlin County Government / Beigang Chaotian Temple

Fabric, bamboo

1890 (the 16th year of the Guangxu reign, Qing Dynasty)

The inscription on this prayer flag indicates that it is from Baodou (present day Beidou Township), reflecting the history of central Taiwan devotees making pilgrimages to Beigang during the late Qing Dynasty. The flag is complete with a triangular-shaped cloth, a tin gourd-shaped top and tin incense tablet. Most of the current prayer flags in Taiwan are from the Japanese occupation era to the Republic of China era. This particular flag is from the Qing Dynasty Guangxu reign, making it a rare artifact.

3-18

3-B-2

Taiwan Hakka village Mazu faith – Beigang Chaotian Temple prayer flag (dated to 1893)

Collection of the Yunlin County Government / Beigang Chaotian Temple

Fabric, bamboo

​​1893 (the 19th year of the Guangxu reign, Qing Dynasty)

 

This prayer flag was registered as a historical artifact of Yunlin County in the 107th year of the Republic of China (2018). It originated from Dahankeng Village in Zhubei second district, Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County, Taipei Prefecture (present-day Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County). In the 19th year of the Guangxu reign (1893) the flag was used for worship by devotee Guan Ah Kang, representing the historical pilgrimage of the Hakka people during the late Qing Dynasty. The journey covered a distance of nearly 400 kilometers from the Hsinchu area to Beigang Township in Yunlin County.

The flag is made of triangular cloth and features a gourd-shaped flagpole top, a tin tablet and a bell. These elements represent the typical prayer flag used in the late Qing Dynasty in Taiwan. The Chinese character ‘bao’ written on the flag follows the form commonly used in the early to mid Qing Dynasty, whereas in the late Qing Dynasty the character slightly changes. The flag indicates that the original way of writing ‘bao’ was still used during the late Qing Dynasty.

3-19

3-B-2

Taiwan Hakka village Mazu faith – Beigang Chaotian Temple prayer flag (dated to 1911)

Collection of the Yunlin County Government / Beigang Chaotian Temple

Fabric, bamboo

1911 (the 44th year of the Meiji era)

This prayer flag dates back to the 44th year of the Meiji era, during the Japanese occupation period. It was used for worship by the Zhang family members Zhang Ah Fa, Zhang Ah Cai and Zhang Ah Chun, from Dapingwo Village in Zhubei second district (present-day Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County). It reflects the historical pilgrimage of local devotees from the Hsinchu area journeying to Beigang Township during the Japanese occupation era.

 

The flag is triangular and features a gourd shaped flagpole top and a tin tablet. The fabric is decorated with embroidered flowers, birds and auspicious animals, symbolizing good fortune.

 

3-20

3-B-2

北港朝天宮進香旗(大正)

雲林縣政府/北港朝天宮典藏

布、竹

大正

待確認

3-21

3-B-2

Taiwan Hakka village Mazu faith – Beigang Chaotian Temple prayer flag (dated to 1953)

Collection of the Yunlin County Government / Beigang Chaotian Temple

布、竹

1953 (the 42nd year of the Republic of China)

This prayer flag dates back to the 42nd year of the Republic of China (1953), and was used for worship by devotees from Tongjing Village in Sanwan Township, Miaoli County. It reflects the historical pilgrimage of the Hakka people from the Miaoli region journeying to Beigang Township after the liberation of Taiwan.

The flag is triangular with a gourd shaped flagpole top and a tin incense tablet. The flag’s design is simple and features a sky blue decorative trim - a common feature from the Miaoli region.

3-22

3-B-2

北港朝天宮進香旗(臺灣光復)

雲林縣政府/北港朝天宮典藏

布、竹

民初

待確認

3-23

3-B-2

Guidance Sign

Collection of Chen Da-Ming

Camphor wood

Qing Dynasty

This signage is a ‘Heavenly Mother’ guidance sign from the Miaoli area. It is used to lead a procession for welcoming deities during temple festivals or pilgrimages to Beigang Township.

3-24

3-B-2

Heavenly Mother Scriptur eprinted by Li Bing Fang of indigenous area 367, Tongluo Village, Miaoli District, Hsinchu Prefecture

Collection of Ji Ren Zhi

Book

Date unknown

This ‘Heavenly Mother Scripture’ was printed with the assistance of Li Bing Fang, a devotee from Tongluo Township, Miaoli County. Originally, there was a shorter Taoist scripture called ‘Taishang Laojun’s Teaching on the Compassionate Salvation of Mazu’. The Taiwanese ‘Heavenly Mother Scripture’ has been heavily influenced by Buddhism and refers to the deity Mazu as ‘Namo Heavenly Mother Bodhisattva’, as well as containing significant additions to its content.

3-25

3-B-3

Clay sculpture of the Deity of Prosperity from Shan Temple

Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan History / courtesy of Ji Ren Zhi

​​

Mixed media

1899-1902

The Shan Temple in Xiaxin Village, Dongshi District, Taichung, is dedicated to the worship of Lord Guan. During the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty, Hakka settlers brought flags of the deities Holy Emperor Guan and the Kings of Three Mountains from their hometowns to dedicate this temple for worship. The construction of the temple began in 1899, and later collapsed in 1999 following the 921 earthquake (Jiji earthquake). The rooftop decorative clay sculpture was salvaged by the National Museum of History, and later transferred to the National Museum of Taiwan History for preservation. The sculpture depicts the deity of prosperity symbolizing success and wealth.

3-26

3-B-3

Medical manual, Yuqing Temple (dedicated to Lord Guan)

Courtesy of the Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica

Paper

Date unknown

This medicinal manual from Yuqing Temple in Miaoli City, is written with the names of medicines and their corresponding symptoms. Although medicinal manuals are now viewed as superstitious and prohibited, they represent a medicinal system that combines the knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine, people, deities and pharmacists. Yuqing Temple primarily worships three deities, among them, Fuyou Dijun is an important deity associated with healing, which explains the presence of this medicinal manual.

3-27

3-B-3

Huamin Xinxin, volume V

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Book

Date unknown

The item ‘Huamin Xinxin’ is a ‘luanshu’ (religious scripture), completed in 1902 by Fushan Hall in Qionglin Township. It consists of five volumes, including benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and faith. The writing of this ‘luanshu’ is based on the divine will of the Lord Guan faith, using plain language to narrate stories and encourage people to do good deeds. The ‘luanshu’ also reveals participants and their roles, making it an important cultural artifact for understanding local society.

3-28

3-B-3

Wise Sayings of Enlightenment

Collection of Qiu Xiu Ying

Book

Date unknown

This document is a ‘luanshu’ (religious scripture) from Jueshan Hall in Xishi Village, Zhutian Township, Pingtung County. Since the mid-Japanese occupation period, it has been regarded as the origin of the Taiwan Hakka ‘luantang’ faith. ‘Luansheng’ (practitioners of the luantang faith) such as Yang Fu Lai from Daquan Hall in Qionglin Township, Hsinchu County, traveled south to Taichung Prefecture and Kaohsiung Prefecture to assist in establishing ‘luantang’ halls and contribute to scripture writing. Jueshan Hall was established in 1933 and the scripture was completed in the following year. The establishment and scripture of Guangshan Hall in Meinong District is another such example.

-C.

3-29

3-C

Personnel announcement for furnace master and other duties during the 1909 Ghost Festival at Baozhong Yimin Temple (reproduction)

國史館臺灣文獻館提供

20030011797

 

Courtesy of the Library of Taiwan Historica

Paper

The 42nd year of the Meiji era

Hundreds of families pour funding and effort into the Ghost Festival

This document is a register detailing the donations and responsibilities of people organizing the Baozhong Temple’s Ghost Festival celebrations. In the Hailu Hakka dialect, the register is commonly referred to as a ‘tiao dan.’ Fourteen major villages took turns organizing the festival on a rotating basis. The festival in this year was held by the Pinglin and Shigangzai joint village communities. The furnace master Fan Sheng Ji is not an individual, but rather a collective name, called a ‘gonghao,’representing an extended family. Almost all listed participants also represent various families.

The participant roles include the furnace master, the manager, the “four pillars” (main ceremony supervisor, main general affairs supervisor, main altar attendant, and main ‘pudu ’ritual supervisor), and the lantern patrons. The roles can be divided into three levels, with higher-level roles requiring more contributions and often being divided into main and deputy positions, or having multiple individuals sharing the same role.

A total of 118 families are listed on the ‘tiao dan,’ but the Formosan Agricultural Review reported 124 households at the time, suggesting that all residents of the Pinglin and Shigangzai joint village communities participated in the festival. People across the communities contributed financially as well as by lending a helping hand, in their role as hosts once every fourteen years. This could be considered an early 20th century crowdfunding initiative.

1. Allocation of tasks and personnel
Principal Furnace Master
Head Furnace Master
Deputy Furnace Master

General Manager
Main Altar Attendant (responsible for altar setup and cleanup)
Main Ceremony Supervisor (responsible for overall ceremonial rituals and procedures)
Main General Affairs Supervisor (responsible for overseeing altars and all related arrangements)
Main ‘Pudu’ Ritual Supervisor (responsible for the ‘pudu’ ritual and handling donation funds)
Manager

Lantern Patrons
The patrons who sponsored 13 temple lanterns are referred to by the names of deities (such as Wugu, Dashi, Guanyin, Chenghuang, and Fuyin) or by their ceremonial roles (such as Denggao, Xiezan, and Dufu).

2. Map of the 15 major villages of Baozhong Yimin Temple
(Cartography by Chen Guo-Chuan, Huang Zhuo-Quan and Luo Lie-Shi, courtesy of Luo Lie-Shi)

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3-C

Baozhong Temple record book of the Wufenpu alliance during the 1922 Ghost Festival (reproduction)

Courtesy of the Library of Taiwan Historica

Paper

1922

This record book dates back to 1922, and records the income and expenses of the Xinpu Township Fangliao Yimin Temple Ghost Festival, held by the Wufenpu Alliance. The record book provides valuable details about the ceremonies and related activities at the time, making it a precious historical document.

3-31

3-C

Prayer flag of Xietian Temple

Collection of the Taiwan Hualien County Yuli Township Xietian Temple Foundation

Fabric, bamboo

Date unknown

From Xinpu Yimin Temple to Hualien Xietian Temple - enshrining a deity through ‘fenxiang’

​​This ‘yimin’ prayer flag of the ‘Yimin Yeh’ faith is from the Xietian Temple in Yuli Township, Hualien County. The temple was built during the Qing Dynasty’s Guangxu reign, and is dedicated to the deity Holy Emperor Guan. During the Japanese occupation era, a large number of Hakka people from Hsinchu Prefecture moved to Yuli Township, and practiced ‘fenxiang’ (a ritual of dividing a deity in order to be enshrined elsewhere). They brought the deity ‘Yimin Yeh’ from Xinpu Township’s Yimin Temple to be enshrined in Xietian Temple. Residents from the surrounding Hakka villages take turns visiting the temple daily, continuing the unique ritual of worshiping ‘Yimin Yeh’ from Taoyuan and Hsinchu.

3-32

3-C

Prayer flag of Zhutian Yimin Temple, Zhutian Village

Collection of the Fuli Township Zhutian Village Yimin Temple

Fabric, bamboo

Date unknown

The Hakka people who moved to Hualien County brought with them the deity of Fangliao Yimin Temple

This ‘yimin’ prayer flag the ‘Yimin Yeh’ faith, known for its black color, is from the Yimin Temple in Zhutian Village, Fuli Township, Hualien County. During the Japanese occupation era, there was a planned development in eastern Taiwan, attracting Hakka people from areas such as Taoyuan, Hsinchu, and Miaoli counties, who moved there and brought with them the ‘yimin’ deity’s ‘xianghuo’ (ritual incense for dividing a deity).  After the war, the villagers returned to Xinpu Township’s Fangliao Yimin Temple to invite the incense of the ‘Yimin Yeh’ deity to Zhutian Village. Every year the ‘Yimin Festival’ is held on the 20th day of the seventh lunar month, where devotees from both Hakka and Hokkien communities come to worship.

3-33

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Flag of the Xinxing Society, a youth group in Yongxing Village

Collection Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Cotton fabric

Circa 1940

Playing in a band has no distinction between past and present, as long as there is a flag, there is momentum!

The Xinxing Society was an amateur ensemble formed by music-loving youth in Shitan Township, Miaoli County during the 1940s. Local residents made flags to show their appreciation and support. The names of the group’s donors were signed on the back of the flag, most likely to be the relatives of the group’s members. Similar community groups in Hakka areas are still thriving, practicing regularly and participating in temple activities.

3-34

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Rubbing of a Xiangxin Hall inscription about seasonal rituals (reproduction)

Collection of the National Taiwan Library

Paper

The 23rd year of the Daoguang reign, Qing Dynasty

The fascinating rotating roster system of 100 people

The Xiangxin Hall is located in Xinpu Township, Hsinchu County, and serves as a place of worship for the Zhai religion. This plaque was erected in 1843 (the 23rd year of the Qing Dynasty Daoguang reign), and was written by scholar Bidan from Dikou monastery in the Longtanpi region. The inscription emphasized the importance of completing the ‘pudu’ rituals of the Ghost Festival from beginning to end, in order to obtain virtue. The lower half of the inscription uses a table to allocate a rotational schedule of 100 devotees, taking turns every other year in organizing four offerings of sticky rice, rice cakes, sticky rice dumplings, and rice soup. Each person can receive five ‘dou’ units of grain, and they take turns based on the order of the ‘Heavenly Stems’ and ‘Earthly Branches’ cycle, following a specific sequence – a particularly unique practice.

※搭配模型

 

Zhongyi Shrine, Zhutian Township, Pingtung County

 

 

 

The Taiwan ‘yimin’ faith, known as “brave men in the south, righteous men in the north”, refers to the brave and loyal individuals who sacrificed their lives to defend their homes during different periods of the Qing Dynasty.

Located in Zhutian Township, Pingtung County, the Zongyi Shrine, originally named ‘Xishi Zhongyi Temple, was built in the 60th year of the Kangxi reign (1722). It is dedicated to the spirits who died to protect their homes in the Luidui region during the Zhu Yigui rebellion. Later it served as a place for worship for other martyred heroes who died defending their homes during times of conflict, such as the Wu Fu Sheng uprising in the 10th year of the Yongzheng reign (1732), the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion in the 51st year of the Qianlong reign (1786) and the Chen Yang rebellion in the 2nd year of the Daoguang reign (1822). For the people of the Liudui region, this temple is not only a place of worship, but also a sacred hall where soldiers took their oaths before going into battle.

During the Japanese occupation era, the Japanese government ordered the closure of Zhongyi Temple, prohibiting local residents from worship, which led to its gradual decline. After the war, the temple was rebuilt in the 47th year of the Republic of China (1958) in a courtyard-style layout and renamed ‘Zhongyi Shrine’. The shrine holds ceremonies twice a year during spring and autumn, and serves as the sacred site where the torch for the annual Liudui Hakka Games is lit. The shrine fosters the continuation of the spirit of unity and commitment to ‘protecting our homes and defending the land’, passed down through generations of people from the Luidui region.

 

Section Four: Striving – Strength to Safeguard One’s Own
Despite the constant changes in Taiwan's political and social environment, the Hakka people have always possessed strength from a collective determination to safeguard their communities. We begin with the legend of Lai Xiong-Fei, the chief commander of the Liudui regional alliance around the early 19th century, who wielded a long-bladed sword. Tales of self-defense groups, civil unrest, war, and autocracy illustrate the spirit of the Hakka people from different generations as they defended their homes.

-A.

4-01

4-A

​​Long-bladed sword, wielded according to legend by Lai Xiong-Fei, chief commander of the Liudui region

 

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Iron

1800

The chief commander’s long-bladed sword

“Liudui” is the name of a Hakka self-defense alliance that gradually formed starting in the 60th year of the Kangxi reign (1721), and refers also to the area of that alliance in the Kaohsiung - Pingtung region. According to legend, this sword is believed to be the long-bladed sword used by Lai Xiong-Fei, the fourth chief commander of Liudui, during the uprising of the pirate Cai Qian during the early 19th century Qing Dynasty. The sword’s imposing appearance led to the spread of sayings around the Jiadong area such as, “Better to fight to the death with the enemy than let Commander Lai wield his sword,” and, “Commander Lai’s great sword strikes fear into hearts.” With the help of such strength, the Hakka communities were able to protect themselves during periods of turbulence. 

4-02

4-A

Agreement signed by village gentry Wu Tang-Xing, Lai Ting Zhang, Administrative Chief Liu Jing Lun, and others, establishing an alliance in the Tongluowan Village area (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1892

Civilian alliances have become a source of local defense forces

During the Qing Dynasty, local communities had a system of village alliances to collectively defend against thieves and protect society from disturbances. This document is the alliance agreement signed in 1892 by 14 villages, including Tongluowan and other villages in Miaoli County. The signatories include local gentry such as Wu Tang-Xing, Lai Ting Zhang, and Administrative Bureau Chief Liu Jing Lun, as well as village leaders. This form of alliance system was commonly found in other Hakka settlements and likely served as military support for Wu Tang-Xing’s resistance a few years later.

-B.

4-03

4-B

Imperial edict, winter 1787 (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Palace Museum

Paper

1787 (the 52nd year of the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Qianlong Emperor presents a plaque

This document is an imperial edict from the 52nd year of Emperor Qianlong’s reign during the Qing Dynasty. It states that as early as the Zhu Yiqui uprising during the Kangxi era, then Viceroy of Min-Zhe Jueluo Manbao had awarded plaques to the righteous people of Guangdong with the inscriptions ‘huaizhong’ (devoted loyalty) and ‘xiaozhong’ (exemplary loyalty). In the case of the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion, the emperor personally bestowed plaques to the patriotic people of Quanzhou and Guangdong villages, to inspire their morale.

4-04

4-B

Petition for an imperial order to award plaques to dutiful plains indigenous persons and goods to mountains indigenous persons (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Palace Museum

Paper

1788 (the 53rd year of the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Guangdong, Quanzhou, Zhangzhoug and the Pingpu regions all received plaques of honor

This document was presented to Emperor Qianlong by the Viceroy of Min-Zhe’s Grand Councilor Fu Kang An and others, after the suppression of the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion. They recommended that in addition to the plaques bestowed upon the residents of Guangdong, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, with the inscriptions ‘baozhong’ (praising loyalty), ‘jingyi’ (honoring righteousness), and ‘siyi’ (contemplate righteousness), another plaque with the inscription ‘xiaoshun’ (exemplary obedience) be granted to the Pingpu indigenous group.

4-05

4-B

Seventh image from a series of prints on the suppression of Taiwan, depicting the Qing army capturing Lin Shuang Wen (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Palace Museum

Paper

1791-1792 (the 56-57th year of the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Lin Shuang Wen is captured alive by the Qing army

This is the seventh print of the copper plate engraving series titled ‘Taiwan Battle Illustrations’, commissioned by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Qing Dynasty. It depicts the scene of ‘Capturing the Rebel Leader Lin Shuang Wen’ and was completed three years after the rebellion. In the bottom left corner of the illustration is Lin Shuang Wen, who was captured alive, while the rest of the illustration portrays the marching formations on the battlefield.

4-06

4-B

Report on a proposal to allocate indigenous lands for the establishment of new garrison posts in Taiwan (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Palace Museum

Paper

1790 (the 55th year of the Qianlong reign, Qing Dynasty)

Allowing the Pingpu indigenous community to defend the border regions

This document was submitted by Wulana, the Viceroy of Min-Zhe, suggesting the investigation of uncultivated lands and the establishment of military garrisons. After the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion, it was recognized that the Pingpu indigenous people had contributed to the Qing government in quelling the rebellion. The authorities realized the potential of using Pingpu forces to maintain social stability, thus recruited Pingpu individuals and established military garrisons to prevent disturbances. The uncultivated lands identified during the investigation were used as salaries for the garrisoned soldiers. Under this system, a historical chapter of cooperation and cultivation between the Han Chinese and the Pingpu people began.

4-07

4-B

Poems Remembering the Eighteen Righteous Ones by the Changhua Chongwen Society (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1926-1945

Remembering the spirit of the Hakka community in protecting their homeland and defending their families through poetry

In 1731 (the 9th year of the Yongzheng reign) the ‘Dajia Xishe Rebellion’ erupted, which was the largest conflict in central Taiwan between the Pingpu indigenous people and Han Chinese rule. Zhang Hong Zhang, the magistrate of Tamsui, led a local militia on an inspection tour, but was attacked by the indigenous population. Eighteen east Guangdong ‘yimin’ (righteous individuals), including Huang Shi Yuan died in this battle. Local residents buried the victims outside the west gate of Changhua County and erected a monument titled ‘Grave of the Eighteen Yimin’. During the Japanese occupation period, writers commemorated the eighteen ‘yimin’ through poetry, praising the spirit of the Hakka community in protecting their homes and families. Currently, the ‘Huaizhong Temple’ stands there, housing the tablets dedicated to the eighteen ‘yimin’ from east Guangdong.

4-08

4-B

Miaoli Yimin Temple’s history, membership roster, land deed, land lease agreement, and worship-related documents (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1926-1945

Sheliaogang Yimin Temple in Miaoli County

The Sheliaogang Yimin Temple (located in present-day Beimiao district in Miaoli County), was built during the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty, after the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion was pacified. These cultural artifacts record the temple’s history, membership rosters of deity associations and temple properties, making them important historical documents for understanding the temple.

The Sheliaogang Yimin Temple (located in present-day Beimiao district in Miaoli County), was built during the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty, after the Lin Shuang Wen rebellion was pacified. These cultural artifacts record the temple’s history, membership rosters of deity associations and temple properties. They serve as important historical documents for understanding the temple and the practice of ‘yimin’ worship in the Miaoli region.

4-09

4-B

Wood divination strips from Tongluo Village’s anti-Japanese Fuyong Temple(reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

White poplar wood

Late 19th century - early 20th century

The history of the developing relationship between indigenous and Hakka communities in Tongluo Village, Miaoli County

This is a set of divination strips from Fuyong Temple in Tongluo Village, Miaoli County, used for reprinting purposes for residents. There are a total of eight strips with 32 divination verses. According to the oral accounts of local elders, during the settlement of Han Chinese in the Tongluo mountain area, three brave settlers died due to conflicts with the indigenous people. Fellow settlers buried the three individuals and erected a stone monument inscribed with, ‘may the spirits manifest and respond to all’. Later the monument became a burial site for those who sacrificed their lives during the resistance against the Japanese occupation, and converted into Fuyong Temple.

 

-C.

4-10

4-C

Republic of Formosa flag of a yellow tiger on a blue background (replica)

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Fabric

2019

Historical testimony of the Taiwanese people’s resistance against the Japanese occupation and defense of their homeland

In 1894, after the defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, Taiwan was ceded to Japan. The following year, Tang Jing Song and Qiu Feng Jia among others proposed the establishment of the ‘Republic of Formosa’, using a blue background with a yellow tiger as the national flag. However, the republic was quickly disintegrated, and local militia - particularly the Hakka forces, became the main resistance against the Japanese military takeover.

4-11

4-C

Flag of command of the anti-Japanese forces (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum

Fabric

1895

Liu Yong Fu was stationed in Tainan and was responsible for organizing the southern land and sea defense of the Republic of Formosa. He led local militia to defend Tainan and served as the main force in the Yiwei War against Japan. This flag was made by order of Liu Yong Fu and was carried by his officers to inspire morale and lead the battle.

4-12

4-C

Illustration of the capture of Bagua mountain in 1895 (print copy)

Courtesy of the Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica

Paper

1895

This illustration depicts the capture of Bagua mountain in Changhua County, drawn by Kimura Shusuke in August 1895 (the 28th year of the Meiji era). It describes the confrontation between the Japanese Imperial Guard Division and resistance forces at Bagua mountain while taking control of Changhua County in August 1895. In the subsequent battle of Bagua mountain, the northern Taiwan Hakka resistance army suffered a major defeat, and their commander Wu Tang-Xing sacrificed his life.

4-13

4-C

​​Illustration by Ai Lian Sheng of General Liu capturing and beheading Japanese Governor-General Kabayama (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1895

This illustration is a work from the Shanghai new year painting market, and depicts an imagined scene of the Yiwei War. The caption roughly states that Governor-General Kabayama was captured by Liu Yong Fu, and after negotiations failed, Kabayama was beheaded for public display. This illustration is purely imaginary and served to satisfy public sentiment at that time.

4-14

4-C

Letter from Liu Cheng Liang to Liu Yong Fu (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1895

In July 1895, Liu Cheng-Liang wrote to his adoptive father Liu Yong Fu to discuss anti-Japanese deployment matters. The letter mentions that among Taiwan’s resistance army at the time, the force that could be relied upon was the Hakka settlement in the Liudui region, east of the Gaoping River. The Hakka people of Meinong District are known for their sense of justice and their skill at ambushes encircling the enemy’s rear, and can be effectively utilized.

4-15

4-C

November 1895 edict by Hu Ah Jin (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum

Paper

1895

This edict was issued by Hu Ah Jin (also known as Hu Jia You) after being appointed by Lio Yong Fu as the commander of the northern Taiwan resistance army. Its main purpose was to reward individuals from all backgrounds for their contributions, and to offer rewards for the capture and killing of bandits and Japanese forces.

4-16

4-C

Righteous civilian certificate, distributed by Liu Yong Fu in Tainan city (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1895

This ‘righteous citizen’ certificate was issued by Liu Yong Fu to the residents of Tainan city. It implemented a system of collective responsibility and neighborhood watch to enhance the city’s security. From this certificate, it can be understood that the term ‘righteous citizen’ used by authorities referred to people who cooperated with the government’s policies, and did not refer to a specific ethnic group.

4-17

4-C

Roster of newly recruited chief sentry officers, guards, sergeants, infantrymen, and cooks under the supervision of Xingzi Battalion (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

1895

This is the roster of new recruits in the Xingzi Battalion, a resistance army in Miaoli County during the Yiwei anti-Japanese war. It provides detailed information such as the name, age, birthplace and fingerprint characteristics of enlisted individuals. The document bears the official stamp of the ‘defense force assigned to Xingzi Battalion’, indicating the formal nature of the document.

4-18

4-C

​​Recruitment announcement for Wu Tang Xing’s volunteer force (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Taiwan University Library

Paper

1895 (the 21st year of the Guangxu reign)

This document is a copy of the recruitment order issued by Wu Tang-Xing, commander of the resistance forces during the Yiwei War in 1895. The text denounces Japanese atrocities and calls for recruits; “I humbly request that every household in every village gather courageous and able-bodied young men, to take up arms and promptly join our cause, in a united effort to eliminate the Japanese oppressors.” Wu Tang-Xing fought fiercely against the Japanese army in Taoyuan, Hsinchu and Miaoli counties, and was ultimately killed at Bagua mountain, Changhua County.

4-19

4-C

Postage stamp with portrait of Qiu Feng-Jia (print copy)

Courtesy of the National Museum of History

Paper

1973

This postage stamp featuring the portrait of Qiu Feng-Jia was issued in conjunction with The 2nd World Hakka Conference in 1973. In the 1970s, there was a diplomatic struggle between the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People’s Republic of China (mainland China) for the right to represent China on the international stage. Against this backdrop, the World Hakka Federation was established, inviting Hakka leaders from various regions worldwide to Taiwan, to create an atmosphere of global Chinese support for Taiwan. Despite the controversy surrounding Qiu Feng-Jia’s flee from Taiwan during the Yiwei War, his image is regarded as representing the anti-Japanese resistance, thus was used on this postage stamp.

4-20

4-C

Round fan gifted by Wu Tang-Xing to Jiang Shao-Zu (reproduction)

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Wood, iron

2018

Wu Tang-Xing once visited Jiang Shao-Zu of the prominent Jiang family in Beipu Township, Hsinchu County, and invited him to join the anti-Japanese cause. Wu Tang-Xing personally gifted this round fan written with the words, “those in power should prioritize and uphold the people’s interests”. Later, Jiang Shao-Zu would die at the age of 20 while fighting against the Japanese.

4-21

4-C

Xu Xiang’s declaration on the eve of the Battle of Zengwun River (calligraphy by Chairman Chen Bang Jen)

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Paper

2019

Xu Xiang, Wu Tang-Xing and Jiang Shao-Zu were three heroes of the Hakka anti-Japanese resistance in 1895. They joined forces to lead the militia in the fight against the Japanese. Xu Xiang, a native of Toufen City in Miaoli County, resisted the Japanese advance and fell in battle while engaging with the enemy. The calligraphy in this work was penned by Chairman Chen Bang Jen of the Hakka Public Communication Foundation. The text is Xu Xiang’s words on the eve of the battle of Zengwun River: “If this place is not defended, Taiwan will perish, and I would rather not return alive”. These words show his determination to fight against the Japanese.

4-22

4-C

Case record of Liao Wen-Yi (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Archives Administration, National Development Council

Paper

1963

Liao Wen-Yi (1910 – 1986) was a Hakka native from the Zhaoan region, Yunlin County. He was well-known for proposing the democratic people-orientated political concept of ‘Taiwan Minbenism’. He opposed the 228 Incident and advocated for Taiwan’s independence, which led to his exile in Japan. He was subjected to a military trial and had his assets confiscated, before receiving amnesty in 1965. This document serves as a testament to the history of Hakka resistance against autocratic rule.

Section Five: Innovation – The Creative Power of Constant Adaptation
The world is not a static place; culture is always evolving. We begin with the journey of Lin Rong-Fei, a mid-20th century non-Hakka native of Fuzhou, and his career as a ceramic artist from central Taiwan to the Hakka region of Miaoli County. This exploration of craftsmanship, industry, and entertainment conveys how the Hakka people continuously adapted to external challenges and environmental changes, responding with wave after wave of ingenuity.

-A.

5-01

5-A-1

Budai Monk

Collection of the Miaoli Ceramics Museum

Ceramic

Japanese occupation era

 

This Budai Monk was created by Lin Rong-Fei (1896 – 1970), a renowned ceramic artist from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. After coming to Taiwan at a young age, Lin first settled in Taichung and then worked at a kiln in Miaoli, becoming a ceramic craftsman. Speaking a blend of the Fuzhou dialect and Hakka language, he established the Lin Rong-Fei Ceramics Factory, known as the “Fujian kiln,” in Gongguan, Miaoli, which was a prominent ceramic hub during the Japanese rule period. The factory produced jars, pots, teapots, incense holders, and other household and religious items that were popular throughout Taiwan. Lin excelled in using ceramics to create sculptures full of artistic energy, as demonstrated by this Budai Monk.

5-02

5-A-1

Ceramic urn

Collection of Huang Jin-Tang

Ceramic

Circa 1916-1965

This ceramic urn was produced by the Jinliancheng kiln in the Jinshanmian region, Hsinchu County. The urn is a deep brown color with a waterfall-like flowing glaze, featuring a blue-green and milky white hue. This effect is the result of high-temperature firing in the kiln and could be considered a flaw, but it is particularly appreciated by collectors. The Chinese characters ‘jin’ and ‘lian’ should be present from the shoulder to the body of the urn, but due to the effect of the glaze or force of tapping, the lettering is unclear.

5-03

5-A-1

​​Dragon pot

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Ceramic

1937-1964

The collector of this dragon pot produced in Gongguan Township, Miaoli County, acquired the item believing it to be the work of Lin Rong Fei. Dragon pots are everyday ceramic vessels used for drinking water, they are typically made using a pottery wheel and glazed both on the inside and outside. In the past they were named after the pair of dragon motifs often found on the body of the pot, offering insights into the early life of residents.

5-04

5-A-1

Figurine of Guanyin by Lin Rong Fei

Collection of Yeh Guo-Ping

Ceramic

民國30-40年

The collector of this Guanyin figurine acquired the item believing it to be the work of Lin Rong Fei. Unlike the dragon pot, which is a household item, the deity figurine elevates the appreciation of aesthetics and holds sacred significance.

5-05

5-A-1

Old Man of the South Pole (by artist Wu Kai Xing)

Collection of Hong Dun-Guang

Ceramic

Date unknown

This work is by Wu Kai-Xing (1903-2000), who was influenced by the Japanese ceramicist Joichi Sasaki and the Fuzhou ceramicist Li Yi-Wu. He was skilled in Japanese-style wheel throwing and coiling techniques. In 1930 (the 5th year of the Shōwa era), Wu Kai-Xing established the ‘Fuxing Pottery Workshop’, which was likely the first kiln opened by a local resident in Miaoli County. He has won numerous awards, while his style and technique has been emulated by many ceramic artists in the Gongguan area of Miaoli County.

5-06

5-A-1

Blue marbled clay teapot and seven teacups (by artist Wu Kai-Xing)

Collection of the Miaoli Ceramics Museum

Clay

Date unknown

This tea set by Wu Kai-Xing is made by using hand-throwing or hand-sculpting techniques. The interior is finished with a celadon and buckwheat glaze, while the exterior has a blackish-iron red glaze. Air bubble defects are dotted throughout the sides, although both the glaze and clay body are not exceptionally delicate, the overall piece reflects the pursuit of precision and craftsmanship. The bottom and lid are written with the characters ‘Miaoli’, the reason is unknown, but may be due to participation in an exhibition or other reason.

5-07

5-A-1

Decorative figurine of Mickey Mouse

Collection of the Miaoli Ceramics Museum

Ceramic

1970s - 1980s

This decorative ceramic work from Miaoli County dates to the 1970s – 1980s. Miaoli County is known for its abundant resources in ceramic materials such as clay, wood and natural gas. During the Japanese occupation era, it had a thriving ceramics industry producing wares for everyday use. In the 1970s manufacturers produced products commissioned by foreign companies, and Miaoli County experienced a boom in the decorative ceramics industry for over 20 years. In the 1990s, due to the relocation of factories, the industry gradually declined.

5-08

5-A-1

Reading rabbits / musical bell

Collection of the Miaoli Ceramics Museum

Ceramic

 1990

This decorative ceramic item was produced through contract manufacturing. Despite the rise and fall of contract manufacturing, it nevertheless contributed to the development of the ceramic art era. This item is a musical bell with a pleasant and adorable design of two rabbits reading.

5-09

5-A-2

Certificate of Merit

5040107 -000926

1936

This Certificate of Merit was presented in 1936 (the 11th year of the Shōwa era) to Wu Luo-Song, who participated in the Great Exhibition of Rapid Japanese Progress in Gifu city, Japan. His folding screen in the design of butterfly orchids was awarded with the gold medal. Wu Luo-Song was the son of Wu Jin-Bao, a pioneer of woodcarving in Sanyi Township. He co-founded the ‘Sculpture Art Institute’ with his Japanese teacher, training the first generation of master woodcarvers in Sanyi Township.

5-10

5-A-2

Squirrel (wood carving)

Collection of the Sanyi Wood Sculpture Museum

Stout camphor wood

1920

This artwork portrays a squirrel carved according to the characteristics of the camphor wood. It demonstrates the ingenuity of the sculptor and represents a change in the industry from processing dry wood, towards a gradual refinement of woodcarving artistry in the Sanyi Hakka region.

5-11

5-A-3

Vintage oil-paper umbrella

Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Paper

Date unknown

The economic miracle of the Hakka oil-paper umbrella
With the introduction of Guangdong’s umbrella making techniques in 1924, the oil-paper umbrella industry in Kaohsiung’s Meinong District gradually developed during the Japanese occupation era. By the 1960’s, it reached its peak with an annual production of over 20,000 umbrellas and a value exceeding 40 million. However, with the advent of machine produced Western style umbrellas, which were cheaper, durable, and more portable, led to a decline in oil-paper umbrella sales. In the 1970s, international media coverage and exposure in television dramas brought fame to Meinong’s oil-paper umbrellas, resulting in unexpected orders for exports of up to 10,000 umbrellas, leading to another economic miracle. After the 1980s, the industry gradually transformed by combining culture and tourism, marking an important milestone in the transformation of Taiwan’s Hakka industries.
The production of an oil-paper umbrella mainly involves the umbrella frame, pasting the paper, applying oil, attaching the handle, and painting the decorative patterns. This intricate process often requires the collaboration of several craftsmen to create a single umbrella of exquisite quality.
In Hakka culture, the oil-paper umbrella is used to convey people’s blessings for their children. When a daughter is married, she is often given a pair of umbrellas as part of her dowry. This is due to the shared phonetic sound of the characters for ‘oil-paper’ and ‘to have children’, both pronounced as ‘you-zi’, while the circular shape of the umbrella symbolizes a fulfilled life with many children. Similarly, parents also give umbrellas to their sons when they come of age. The Chinese character for ‘umbrella’ is composed of five ‘ren’, the character for ‘person’, conveying the hope that the young men will become capable individuals and the pillar of the family.

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Early packaging of boxed tea from the Formosa Black Tea Company

The Formosa Black Tea Co., Ltd. / Formosa Tea Industry and Culture Gallery

Paper

Early 1970s

These items are products and souvenirs produced by the Taiwan Black Tea Corporation located in Guanxi Township, Hsinchu County. The company was originally named the ‘Taiwan Black Tea Stock Company’ and was founded in 1937, exporting high-quality Taiwanese black tea to more than 80 ports worldwide. Today, its high-quality steamed green tea and green tea powder are well-known in the industry and are exported to Japan.

 

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Early packaging of tea tins from the Formosa Black Tea Company

The Formosa Black Tea Co., Ltd. / Formosa Tea Industry and Culture Gallery

Metal

Early 1940s

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Early packaging of tea tins from the Formosa Black Tea Company

The Formosa Black Tea Co., Ltd. / Formosa Tea Industry and Culture Gallery

Metal

1950s - 1960s

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Souvenir teacup from the Formosa Black Tea Company

The Formosa Black Tea Co., Ltd. / Formosa Tea Industry and Culture Gallery

Ceramic

1938 - 1940s

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Assam tea leaves from the Formosa Black Tea Company’s Guanxi tea factory

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan History

Mixed media

1956

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Replica of Assam black tea tin from the Yong Guang Black Tea Company

Educational display item

Iron

 2023

This item is a replica of the ‘Assam Black Tea’ produced by Yong Guang Black Tea Company, which served as the inspiration for the TV drama ‘Gold Leaf’. Although the company has long since ceased its operations, recently later generations have revitalized the industry through the cultural industry, garnering much interest.

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5-18

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First volume of a Lai Pi-Xia song collection on vinyl record

Collection of Liu Shi-Guang

Vinyl record

1963-1964

Lai P- Xia (1932-2015) was fluent in Hakka, Taiwanese and Japanese, with some knowledge of the Atayal language, and later learned Chinese. At the age of seventeen she married Zhao En-Lin, a native of Shenyang, Liaoning Province. She began learning from traditional tea-picking opera and devoted herself to popularizing Hakka songs. The album ‘Lai Pi-Xia’s Collected Songs’ was released in the 1960s, featuring nine Hakka popular songs. She also incorporated different styles from the art of narration into her work, such as her rendition of ‘Zhao Wu-Niang’ (Fifth Madam Zhou) adapted from Peking Opera.

The 1973 film ‘Tea Mountain Love Song’ was the first film in the history of Taiwan cinema filmed in the Hakka language and shot in the Hakka region. Lai Pi-Xia participated in the film as a singer behind the scenes and co-wrote the script with Peng Shuang-Lin. She dedicated over 60 years of her life to the preservation and promotion of Hakka folk mountain songs, and in 2012 she was awarded the National Award for Arts.

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Tea Mountain Love Song poster (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Center for Traditional Arts, Taiwan Music Institute

Paper

1965

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“Enemies become in-laws” (part I)

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Vinyl record

Date unknown

‘Xiaokeju’ is a form of narration art that gained popularity through radio dramas before television became mainstream. It later expanded to include television and stage performances. The content consists of humorous dialogues using slang and puns, with improvised Hakka mountain songs and folk songs. As time progressed, Eastern and Western songs were also included, reflecting a significant amount of cross-genre fusion.

Enemies become in-laws (part I): Tea-picking comedy drama.
Hakka comedy ‘Li Wen Gu’ episode 7: Composer Lu Jin-Shou and Mr. Li Wen-Guang from Wanluan Township, recorded the Hakka classic audio drama ‘Li Wen-Gu’ series.
The complete works of the Hakka comedy for welcoming prosperity and fortune: Hakka comedy drama series.

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Hakka comedy series Li Wen-Gu, episode seven

Collection of Hong Deng Qin

Vinyl record

Released in May, 1967

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Hakka comedy series Welcoming Prosperity and Fortune, all episodes

Collection of Hong Deng Qin

Vinyl record

Released on the 20th January, 1968

 

Section Six: Seeking – Who Are the Hakka People?
This section features a page from Hakka history, exploring their stories from migration to settlement, from preserving traditions to seeking innovation and change. We begin with the writer Lin Hai-Yin, as she navigates her experiences with diverse ethnic communities. Through works of literature, art, photography, and other media, we look at how people seek and contemplate their own identities and connection to the land.

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My Memories of Old Beijing

Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature (donated by Wu Kang-Wen, Wu Chong-Wen, Wu Yu-Wen, Wu Zhu-Wen, and Wu Jia-Bao)

Paper

1961

​​Is Lin Hai-Yin a Hakka writer?

What is “Hakka”? Perhaps the experiences of Hakka people today are better captured by Lin Hai0Yin, a non-typical Hakka person with a multicultural background. Lin Hai-Yin (1918 – 2001) was born to a Hakka father from Toufen, Miaoli County. She was born in Osaka, Japan, and lived in her mother’s hometown of Banqiao until the age of four. Later she moved with her parents to Beijing, where she spent her formative years. Her upbringing in Beijing became an important backdrop to her novel My Memories of Old Beijing. After Lin-Hai Yin returned to post-war Taiwan, she became known for her Beijing accent and free-spirited image as a ‘waishengren’ (a term for Chinese mainlanders who emigrated in the years after World War II), but her Hakka heritage and mentorship of many young Taiwanese writers such as Chung Li-Ho, Chung Chao-Cheng and Huang Chun-Ming demonstrated her diverse and remarkable contributions that transcended ethnic boundaries.

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Photo of Lin Hai Yin and her daughters Xia Zu Mei and Xia Zu Li as children (reproduction)

Courtesy of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature

Photograph

1952

Lin Hai Yin family photo, the text on the back reads: “Memories of Chi Chun: Hai Yin and her daughters Mei and Li, December of the forty-first year.”

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Letter from Lin Hai-Yin to Zhong Li-He (December 2, 1959) (reproduction)

Courtesy of National Museum of Taiwan Literature

Paper

1959

This letter was written by Lin Hai-Yin to Zhong Li-He on December 2nd, 1959, informing him of the serialization of his novel.

During Lin Hai-Yin’s time as editor-in-chief of the publication ‘Lianfu’, they began publishing works by local Taiwanese authors. At the time, Chong Chao-Cheng, who had already contributed to Lianfu, sent two works on behalf of Zhong Li-He. Since then, many of Zhong Li -He’s works were published in Lianfu, which greatly encouraged him. Lin Hai-Yin and Zhong Li He developed a friendship through their correspondence.

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Letter from Zhong Li-He to Lin Hai-Yin (reproduction)

Courtesy of the Chung Li-He Museum / Chung Li-He Culture and Education Foundation

Paper

1959

Lin Hai-Yin valued writers who transitioned from pre-war Japanese to post-war Chinese works and encouraged them to resume their writing, with Chong Li-Ho being one of them. During her time as editor-in-chief of the publication ‘Lianfu’, Lin Hai-Yin expanded various literary columns and published a large number of literary works, inspiring many writers. Zhong Li-He concludes this letter by writing, “our group of literary friends are still small seedlings, if no one takes special care, it would be natural for us to struggle to gain a foothold. I sincerely hope for your continued support, so that we may not wither before we fully blossom, which would be a great fortune.”

 

 

My Memories of Old Beijing picture book

Educational display item

Paper

2000

The children’s picture book ‘My Memories of Old Beijing’ was created by watercolor artist Guan Wei Xing. The book’s detailed illustrations of clothing, objects and architecture were meticulously researched. Along with the delicate expressions of the characters, the play of light and air, and the artist’s rich brushwork, all vividly bring to life the original text. In 1993 and 1994 the artist was invited to participate in international illustration exhibitions in Bologna Italy, Bratislava Slovakia and Catalonia Spain.

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My Native Land (revised draft) (manuscript)

Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature (donated by Zhong Tie-Min)

Paper

Date unknown

For Zhong Li-He, pursuing the question of ‘hometown’ is closely tied with the search of finding ‘who am I?’ His short story ‘My Native Land’ is set against the backdrop of the Japanese occupation era, where the protagonist, sparked by his teacher, begins a continually evolving reflection into what constitutes a hometown and the significance that it entails, ultimately embarking on a journey to his own hometown.

Zhong Li He, a Hakka native from Gaoshu Township, Pingtung County, used the pen names Jiang Liu, Li He, Zhong Zheng, and Zhong Jian. His work primarily consists of stories and essays, exploring themes ranging from the resistance against conservative traditions, the conflicting love-hate perception towards China as a hometown, to family bonds and agricultural life. Although he grew up in the Japanese occupation era, he insisted on writing in Chinese. Despite his early passing, Chong Li-He was a prolific writer, with over 60 short stories and one novel, totalling around 630,000 words. Additionally, he left behind 100,000 words in diary entries and essays.

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Wintry Night Trilogy, volume I: Wintry Night (part I) (manuscript)

Collection of the National Museum of Taiwan Literature (donated by Li Neng-Qi)

Paper

1978

The ‘Wintry Night Trilogy’ is a novel spanning three generations based on the history of Japanese rule and war in Taiwan. It consists of three main volumes: ‘Wintry Night’, ‘Deserted Village’, and ‘Solitary Lamp’. ‘Wintry Night’ depicts the process of a group of farmers venturing into the mountains to establish a settlement during the periods before and after Taiwan was colonized by Japan. Faced with natural disasters, conflict with indigenous groups and Han Chinese settlers, and oppression by landlords, eventually they rise up in resistance as the fruits of their hard work are threatened to be taken from them. From the trilogy, we gain a glimpse into the history of author Li Qiao’s family, while from a broader perspective, we discover its close connection to the overall historic fate of Taiwan.

Li Neng-Chi, whose pen name is Li Qiao, was born in 1934 in the mountainous area of Fanzailin, Dahu Township, Miaoli County, Taiwan. Coming from a humble background, his father Li Mu-Fang was often away from home due to his involvement in the anti-Japanese movement. The family relied on his mother’s sole income from farming, which instilled a deep respect for his mother throughout his life. As a child, Li Neng-Chi faced bullying due to his father’s status, and because of the family’s financial difficulties, he also faced the death of his younger siblings. These early experiences had a profound impact on his writing style.

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Zhong Yuan Weekly magazine compilation

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Paper

1988

The beginning of intellectual enlightenment

The magazine ‘Zhong Yuan’ was founded in 1962 with the aim of promoting Hakka culture and discussing issues in the Hakka community, and ended its publication in 2002. The weekly magazine was proposed by Hakka people considered as ‘waisheng’ (person whose ancestral home in not in Taiwan) and completed through the collaboration of Hakka people considered as ‘bensheng’ (person whose ancestral home is Taiwan), making it the world’s first magazine dedicated to the Hakka ethnic group. Its content included genres such as novels, biographies, discussions about issues in the Hakka community, travelogues, memoirs, poetry, mountain songs, folk songs, and more, all centered around the Hakka culture.

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13th issue of Hakka Affairs Monthly, November 1st, 1988

Collection of the Taiwan Hakka Culture Development Center

Paper

1988

Driving force behind the ‘reclaim our mother tongue’ movement

The theme of this issue of ‘Hakka Affairs Monthly’ is ‘Take off your mask – unveiling the Hakka mother tongue movement’; reflecting the revitalization of civil society and the rise of Taiwanese consciousness after the lifting of martial law. It advocates for the return to localization in language and culture, providing the background for the mother tongue movement. The establishment of literary societies and publications played a significant role in the early stages of the movement. For example the ‘reclaim our mother tongue’ parade in 1988 was organized by Hakka Affairs Monthly magazine.

The Hakka Affairs Monthly magazine was first published on October 25th 1987. The publisher is Hu Hong-Ren, the editor-in-chief is Liang Jing-Feng, the honorary president is Lin Yi-Xiong and the president is Qiu Rong-Ju. The magazine’s editorial clearly states the aim of “establishing the new values of Hakka people”, spreading awareness of Hakka consiousness through monthly reports, critiques, discussions, and coverage of the Hakka movement.

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New Hakka People

Educational display item

Paper

1991

The wave of the ‘reclaim our mother tongue’ movement continues.

In 1990, the Taiwan Hakka Association for Public Affairs led by Chong Chao-Cheng, was formally established. They put forth the ‘New Hakka’ proposition, stating that “Hakka people are also the masters of Taiwan”. Their main objectives were “liberation of the mother tongue, cultural revival, democratic participation, and dedication to the homeland”. They persistently promoted the Hakka movement, elevating Hakka issues to the public discourse. The following year, they published the book ‘New Hakka People’, which included chapters on Hakka culture, language and scenery. Each article delved in-depth into concepts, or offered unique cultural discussions, prompting reflection among readers.

 

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Beipu documentary photo (print copy)

Printed copy of the original glass negative. Photography by Deng Nan-Guang; National Center of Photography and Images, copyright permission by Deng Shi-Guang

  

Glass

Date unknown

Enjoying the spectacle

It must have been the orchestra and drums of the Ping An opera along with the shouts from the crowd, that attracted the women to lean out of their windows and experience the festive rituals and theatrical performances. The photographer Deng Nan Guang amusingly captured the liveliness of the temple from a distant corner. Deng Nan-Guang enrolled in the Economics Department of Tokyo Hosei University in 1929, where he was exposed to contemporary photography. In 1932 he returned to Japan and joined the Kanto Photographic Association, honing his knowledge and skills in photography.

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Beipu Ping An Opera (print copy)

​​Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts

 

Material unknown

1935

An open-air show that captivates all

This photograph was taken by Deng Nan-Guang in front of Citian Temple in Beipu Township, during the winter of 1935. It captures a scene of the Ping An opera performance and the audience in the foreground. Deng Nan-Guang’s work primarily focused on documenting Beipu Township, wartime events, local customs in northern Taiwan, and urban street scenes. He was a pioneer of realism photography in Taiwan, and this particular work captures the charm of theatrical entertainment.

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Reasonable Massacre (print copy)

 

​​Courtesy of the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts

Oil on canvas

1976

This artwork depicts the folk custom of pig slaughtering. The artist portrays the movements of the people and the characteristics of the pig with delicate brushstrokes, capturing the realism of the scene. The portrayal is so vivid that you can almost feel the strength exerted by the fingers holding down the pig. The eerie atmosphere provokes reflection into the conflict and unease of the artwork’s title ‘Reasonable Massacre’.

Hsieh Hsiao-De (1940 - ) was born in Xinwu District, Taoyuan County. He graduated from the Department of Fine Arts at the National Taiwan Normal University. His creative practice focuses on life experiences, deep contemplation, and a strong sense of relevance to the times.

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A Distant Village (print copy)

Courtesy of the Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts

Ink, acupuncture, gouache, red ink paste on wood panel

1999

When viewed from a distance, this artwork appears as a large-scale ink landscape, depicting a terrain of rolling hills where the Hakka community lived. On closer inspection, various place names can be seen marked on the hills, representing the historical migration routes of the Hakka people. In the background of the landscape is a pair of dotted figures, which was taken from a black and white photo of the artist’s parents during their courtship. This artwork contains many interesting elements, offering different insights whether viewed from afar or up close.

Peng Hsien-Hsiang (1968 -) was born in Miaoli County. He graduated from the Graduate Institute of Plastic Arts at the Tainan National University of Arts.

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The Betel Nut Trees of My Hometown

Collection of the Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Fine Arts

Watercolor

2000

Hsieh Hsiao-De excels at depicting mountain landscapes in gentle rain and sunlight, using his hometown of Xinwu District in Taoyuan County as the subject. His artworks reflect the spiritual impressions of his personal growth. Through his brushstrokes, the painting conveys a deep affection and interest for Hakka farming life.

Hsieh Hsiao-De (1940 - ) was born in Taoyuan. He graduated from the Department of Fine Arts at the National Taiwan Normal University. His creative practice focuses on life experiences, deep contemplation, and a strong sense of relevance to the times.

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