Umbrella Hakka Cluster Architecture
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Coverage

Coverage

Source: Hakka Culture Development Center
Date: 2012/12/18
Updated: 2016/04/07

History of Liudui
In 1721 (the 60th Kangxi year of the Qing Dynasty), the Ju Yi Gui Incident occurred. To defend and protect the Hakka village from troubling events, the Hakka people distributed themselves across the PingTung Plain, organized as armed, self-defense clans according to geographic locations. There were 6 stationary camps and 7 traveling camp teams established to defend against foreign aggression. After that incident ended, the armed clan forces were dissolved back into their own villages. When the Lin Shuang Wen Incident occurred, the “team” was decided to be changed into a “pile” (pile “dui” is a Hakka homophone for “team”). Six piles became formal autonomous self-defense organizations.


In 1721, the Ju Yi Gui Incident threatened the lives of the ancestors of the villages of Hakka. The gentry's volunteers from various places gathered in Neipu Matsu Temple for a meeting to establish the self-defense clan armed forces. Middle, front, back, left, right, and pioneer camps, as well as traveling camps, were founded to defend their hometown and resist foreign invasion. The organized cooperation & protection earned the Hakka victory this time. Because of their contribution to stopping the incident, the Qing Dynasty acted to build the Loyalty Pavilion and regard the Loyalty Pavilion as a spiritual fortress. The six camps at that time evolved into the current LiuDui (six-pile), that is, the middle pile (Jhutian), front pile (Linluo, Changzhi), back pile (Neipu), left pile (Xinpi, Chiatung), right pile (Meinung, Kaoshu) and pioneer pile (Wanluan). Liudui Township stretches across Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County. It belonged to Fengshan County throughout the Qing Dynasty and commonly belonged to Monkey Hall and Kaohsiung State in the Japanese occupation period. After Taiwan was recovered, except for Meinung, which was added to Kaohsiung County, all other parts belong to Pingtung County. Therefore, “Six-Pile” is not an administration area, but a spiritual entity of the same family.


Liudui Distribution
Right Pile (Meilung, Kaoshu, Shanlin, Liugui, Jiaxian)
Front Pile (Linluo, Changzhi)
Back Pile (Neipu)
Middle Pile (Jhutian)
Pioneer Pile (Wanluan)
Left Pile (Xinpi, Chiatung)
 


六堆分佈圖
 

Right Pile: Kaoshu, Meilung, Liugui, Shanlin, part of Jiaxian, Wuluo Village of Likang Township, Shou Jin Liao of Chishan.
Front Pile: Changzhi, Linluo, Zunliao of Chiuju Township, Tianliao of Pingtung City, ChiphunZai of Yanpu Township.
Middle Pile: Jhutian
Back Pile: Neipu
Pioneer Pile: Wanluan
Left Pile: Xinpi, Chiatung

The naming histories of villages and towns of Liudui
★Changzhi Township★
This area belongs to one of the residences of the Siraya Pingpu clan. A large amount of Han people moved here during the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the recovery period. Yong-Gao Qiu came here to develop the land and named it “Changxing Village”. “Changxing” might be the development number at that time. After recovering Taiwan, Ju-Fan Ho changed the name from “Changxing Village” to “Changzhi Village”, which means “long-term stability”.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 279)
★Linluo Township★
This area belonged to the living region of the Shiraya Pingpu clan in early times. The Qing Dynasty recorded the area as “Lingluo” probably because there was already a “Linluo” community in Pingpu at that time. Our ancestor Jun-Liang Xu came here to develop the land for Jiaying State during Emperor Kangxi’s years of the Qing Dynasty. He found a large tortoise when building a water path, and from a geography teacher, he had learned that there must be a unicorn where there is a large tortoise. This area was thus an auspicious place with the toes of a unicorn grounded. The place was thus named “LinLou estate”, and then renamed “Linluo” at a later time.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 243)
(Data source: Local Educational Material of Pingtung County Elementary School, R.O.C. 84, edited by Pingtung County Government)
★Wanluan township★
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. Ancestors saw the continuous green peaks of the Dawu Mountain as “ten thousand hill” peaks and thus named the place according to the scenery when they first developed the land.
2. Eels could be caught everywhere in this area during the Qing Dynasty period. People called this the “place of ten thousand eels”. Later, the name gradually became “Wanluan” because “eel” and “hill” were pronounced similarly in the Hakka language.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 31)
(Data source: Introduction to Wanluan Township in Pingtung County, edited by Wanluan Township Office in Pingtung County)

★Neipu Township★
The history about this place’s name also has two theories:
1. A dense forest grew here in earlier times. Ancestors who came to develop the land developed a dry field, which is called “Pu” in the Hakka language, in the forest first. Because the field was located inside the dense forest, the place was thus called “Neipu”.
2. When the ancestors of “Neipu” developed lands outwards, the initially developed pu-land was called “Neipu”. This place was developed successfully by Fujian and Guangdong immigrants during Emperor Kangxi’s years of the Qing Dynasty.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 300)
(Data source: Local Educational Material of Pingtung County Elementary School, R.O.C. 84, edited by Pingtung County Government)

★Jhutian Township★
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. Tiao Di Estate was the rice distribution center of Liudui in early times. When the river suddenly rose in Da Da Port, rice was stored in other nearby estates. The place used to store goods was thus called “ton matter”. It was renamed as “Jhutian” in the Japanese occupation period because the county had more bamboo gardens than water fields. Therefore, the place’s name was changed to “Jhutian”.
2. The place was originally called “ton matter” because developers accordingly stored food, farm tools and other things here. In the 9th MingKuo year, it was renamed Jhutian, which is a Japanese style toponym.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 31)

★Xinpi Township★
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. Hakka ancestors built parapets (called “Pi” in Chinese) of artificial reservoirs for easy tillage here. A new blog called “Xinpi Head” was built in front of the parapets. The word “Head” was removed, but the simpler name “Xinpi” was maintained during the Japanese occupation period.
2. “Xinpi” was named after the newly built parapet heads for irrigation.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 127)
(Data source: Local Educational Material of Pingtung County Elementary School, R.O.C. 84, edited by Pingtung County Government)

★Chiatung Township★
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. The place was called “Jiadong Feet” because there were many bischoffia javanica trees in the area when this place was initially developed. It was renamed “Chiatung” because “Jiadong” in Taiwanese is similar to “Chiatung” so the toponym was simplified during the Japanese occupation period.
2. Chiatung was originally the former site of the MakaDaoZuJiaTeng community. It was renamed with the commonly known toponym “Jiadong Feet” because JiaTeng is pronounced similarly to the tree name of “bischoffia javancia”. The Jiadong Feet region was established during the Japanese occupation period and was renamed “Chiatung” in the 9th Taisho year.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 320)

★Kaoshu Township★
The original name of this place was “DaCheLu” because the road was wide enough to allow multiple ox carts to pass simultaneously.
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. The head of the estate previously had a cotton tree. The place was called “Kaoshu” accordingly because the body of the tree was tall and the shape looked like a large cart cover.
2. Han people built blogs on higher river beds when they initially developed the land. The place is named “Kaoshu” because plenty of woods grew there with taller “trees” due to the abundance of water.
(Data source: Hua-Song Cun, R.O.C. 85, Taiwan Native Full Record (9). Taipei: Middle one, page 95)
(Data source: Local Educational Material of Pingtung County Elementary School, R.O.C. 84, edited by Pingtung County Government)

★Meilung Township★
The history about this place’s name has two theories:
1. Meilung was originally called “MiNong”, which evolved into the current name.
2. Meilung was the distribution location of the “MeiLong clan”, which was one of the four communities of the original resident Tsao clan in the past. One word from “Mi-Li community” of the PinPu clan and one word from the stream name of “Laonong stream” were probably combined to form the name.
In the first year of Emperor Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, brother Feng-Shan Lin came here to develop the land with “MiNong” words in the open base inscription. After that, the clan name was referred to as “MiNong” to mean that the water was the source in that place without depletion. After the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese in Taiwan renamed “MiNong” as “Meilung” to remember their hometown Meilung in Japan that also had green hills and clear waters.
 (Data source: The Study of Local Educational Material for Elementary School Social Science – Understand Kaohsiung County, edited by Kuo Hua Wu etc., issued by Educational Department of Taiwan Province, published by National Pingtung Teachers College)
★Liugui Township★
The old name of Liugui was Liugui Village. Liugui Village was from the transliteration of the PanMangZaiManPan community name of the four communities of the Tsao clan. The place was renamed Liugui in the 9th Taishou year because there were six mountain rocks with the front ones facing the back ones that formed a tortoise shape.
(Data source: The Study of Local Educational Material for Elementary School Social Science – Understand Kaohsiung County, edited by Kuo Hua Wu etc., issued by Educational Department of Taiwan Province, published by National Pingtung Teachers College)

★Jiaxian Township★
Jiaxian was originally called Jiaxian Pu, which was built by the PanDaWuLongTou community of the four communities on Ali Mountain. The first inhabitants in this area were puppet aboriginal tribes. Jiaxian Pu seems to come from the abbreviation of the pu-land of QueiLeiNanZihSian. The detailed toponym needs to be verified.
(Data source: The Study of Local Educational Material for Elementary School Social Science – Understand Kaohsiung County, edited by Kuo Hua Wu etc., issued by Educational Department of Taiwan Province, published by National Pingtung Teachers College)

★Shanlin Township★
Shanlin was originally called Nageia Nagi Forest because a forest with dense nageia nagi’s created the original landscape in this place.
Liudui ~ a Hakka Peach-Blossom Spring hidden in maps
Liudui is the center of the southern Hakka people in a legend … but an Arcadia is not found on the maps …
If you admire the stiff-neck spirit of the Liudui Hakka people, if you have admired the traditional culture of the Liudui Hakka people,
How about coming to Liudui Hakka Cultural Park to enjoy a traditional Hakka cultural art tour!